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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

1. Introduction Cloud feedbacks and processes have been clearly highlighted as a leading source of uncertainty for understanding global climate sensitivity ( IPCC 2007 ). Clouds play fundamental and complex roles in the climate system by redistributing heat and moisture through modulation of atmospheric radiation, latent heating processes, and serving as a critical link in the hydrological cycle. They are affected by aerosol properties, large-scale circulation patterns, interactions with the

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

al. 2006 ; Arndt et al. 2010 ; Lau and Wu 2010 ; Waliser et al. 2009 ). TRMM has also provided estimated vertical profiles of latent heating in the tropics ( Fig. 4-3 ), a key driver for global atmospheric circulation ( Olson et al. 2006 ; Tao et al. 2010 ). In addition, potential human impacts on rainfall are related to processes associated with urban heat islands, deforestation, and aerosols ( Hand and Shepherd 2009 ). This TRMM climatology has provided an important benchmark for global

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

-based inversion makes thermal techniques challenging, as the cloud and the surface can be nearly the same temperature. Therefore, ground-based instruments provide a critical set of observations for determining properties of Arctic clouds and their concurrent impacts on the surface radiative budget. The Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) campaign (in which ARM participated) provided an unprecedented dataset on cloud and radiative properties over the Arctic sea ice for a year (e.g., Shupe and Intrieri

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

congestus/cumulonimbus with silver iodide or frozen CO 2 in regions containing supercooled water converts the water to ice, releasing the latent heat of fusion within the cloud, increasing cloud buoyancy and causing the cloud to grow taller. This in turn causes more moisture to condense, activates more ice near cloud top, and increases the amount of precipitation falling from the cloud. A review of research related to the static- and dynamic-mode glaciogenic seeding hypotheses was published by

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

to colder temperatures, the latent heat of freezing will be released at higher altitudes, thereby generating clouds with higher vertical velocities and higher cloud tops. This chain of events is often termed “aerosol invigoration of convection” ( Koren et al. 2005 ). Invigoration tends to be used as a “catch-all” to describe various aspects of the aerosol influence, such as stronger convection, more rain, heavier rain, stronger cold pool outflow ( Khain et al. 2005 ; Lee et al. 2008 ), and

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

important new application during this era, with initial air-quality standards being applied. Boundary layer meteorology also had a special application area in this era: nuclear energy regulation and safety. [See Walker and Wellock (2010) for relevant history, including the incidents from Three-Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979 and Chernobyl in (now) Ukraine in 1986.] Transport of possible nuclear fallout was a major concern and became a specific application for forecasting in this era. Energy

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

radiosonde observations made as part of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Program in the Beaufort Sea in 1997–98. During SHEBA, mixed-phase clouds occurred 41% of the time and were most frequent in the spring and fall transition seasons. These clouds often consisted of a shallow, cloud-top liquid layer from which ice particles formed and fell, although deep, multilayered mixed-phase cloud scenes were also observed. On average, individual cloud layers persisted for 12 h, while some mixed

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