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Randall S. Cerveny, Pierre Bessemoulin, Christopher C. Burt, Mary Ann Cooper, Zhang Cunjie, Ashraf Dewan, Jonathan Finch, Ronald L. Holle, Laurence Kalkstein, Andries Kruger, Tsz-cheung Lee, Rodney Martínez, M. Mohapatra, D. R. Pattanaik, Thomas C. Peterson, Scott Sheridan, Blair Trewin, Andrew Tait, and M. M. Abdel Wahab

and the adaptation or resilience to the event. For example, heat wave–related mortality tends to decrease as air conditioning becomes more widespread. Similarly, lightning casualties decrease when munitions storage facilities install lightning rods and athletic programs establish lightning safety protocols ( Walsh et al. 2013 ). Overall mortality can also decrease as a result of continuous improvement in related forecasting and warning infrastructure. For example, the MeteoAlarm system in Europe

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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

stressors can impact the dynamics of stormwater and the effectiveness of stormwater management strategies. Through creating diagrams, managers learn how multiple stressors can work in concert to exacerbate stormwater flows and impacts. For example, participants in McClellanville, South Carolina, noted that increased rainfall variability and heat may alter the structure of soils, leading to much lower rates of infiltration than would be expected if rain came in smaller amounts more regularly. The

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Abigail Sullivan and Dave D. White

; Salvaggio et al. 2014 ) and the urban heat island effect in Phoenix ( Guhathakurta and Gober 2007 ). Additionally, all three areas rely on the Colorado River basin for a significant portion of their municipal water supply, which is projected to experience prolonged and intensified droughts ( Cook et al. 2015 ). Vulnerability to climate change is a human-produced trait; that is, communities are not inherently vulnerable to climate change impacts ( Kelly and Adger 2000 ). As decision-makers evaluate

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Eliza de Vet

challenges. Characteristically, the Build-Up research week was less than comfortable and practically difficult, not only due to heat but, of equal importance, to high humidity. During this time, participants appreciated rain, wind, and cloud cover—“Finally, relief from the heat. It’s not a big storm (yet!) just a light shower … my body feels alive and refreshed again” (Jenny). The second research week began like any other during the Wet season—warm and humid, with welcomed overcast skies and diurnal

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Piotr Matczak, Dariusz Graczyk, Adam Choryński, Iwona Pińskwar, and Viktoria Takacs

regular heat and cold waves in Warsaw with the proverb “Barbara on water Christmas on ice,” and determined the accuracy of the proverb as 53%. Furthermore, studies of Kołodziej et al. (2004) , Liniewicz (1992) , and Morawska-Horawska (1988) tested one or a few proverbs for a city or a larger territory. These studies generally indicate the limited forecasting accuracy of the proverbs. In general, it is argued that the knowledge contained in proverbs is relevant for institutions dealing with

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Yun Su, Yuan Kang, Xianshuai Zhai, and Xiuqi Fang

groups during cold periods ( Zhang et al. 2011 ; Wang 1996 ). Tol and Wagner (2010) also suggest that reductions in heat input reduce the land carrying capacity of traditional agricultural societies, and most wars occur in cold periods. However, some scholars believe that climate warming leads to more wars ( Su et al. 2016 ). A warm and humid climate is conducive to increased grassland productivity, thereby providing resources for nomadic groups to wage wars. For example, the warm and humid

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Avital Li and James Ford

Panama as the most vulnerable to future climatic change using a “climatic space” variable, which measures average projected climatic changes in different ecosystem patches compared to interannual climatic variation in the past 40 years. A drying pattern is predicted for Central America, with a decrease in summer precipitation and intensification of the mid-summer drought phenomenon ( Fábrega et al. 2013 ; Hidalgo et al. 2013 ). Drought and heat stress increase the vulnerability of forests to tree

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Gabrielle Roesch-McNally, Michael Chang, Meghan Dalton, Scott Lowe, Charlie Luce, Christine May, Gary Morishima, Philip Mote, Alexander “Sascha” Petersen, and Emily York

instance, emergency department and urgent care clinic data can be monitored in real time and studied retroactively after a climate-related event (such as to detect increases in heat-related stroke or asthma attacks triggered by poor air quality), but this is only a part of the picture. There is a need to better understand other less acute health effects that do not rise to the level of emergency department room visits (such as mental health impacts of prolonged smoke or drought conditions

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Matthew Berman and Jennifer I. Schmidt

associated with protecting, reinforcing, and relocating infrastructure, $50–$100 million per year represents a reasonable projection of costs to protect infrastructure threatened by erosion and move communities to safer ground. 3) Space heating Reduced space heating demand represents an important positive effect of climate warming. Data from the 2012 Alaska Energy Authority energy end-use study ( WHPacific 2012 ) show that Alaskans annually use about 50 million MMBtu to heat residential homes and 18

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K. Fagiewicz, P. Churski, T. Herodowicz, P. Kaczmarek, P. Lupa, J. Morawska-Jancelewicz, and A. Mizgajski

floods; e.g., Jawgiel 2017 ); thermal conditions—higher frequency of heat waves and the impact of urban heat island in Poznań (e.g., Majkowska et al. 2017 ); air quality—threats exceeding the permissible concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and their harmful effects on the health of the residents; and spatial planning—supporting investments in nature protection and green infrastructure to increase regulatory ecosystem services (e.g., Zwierzchowska et al. 2019 ). Climate change increases the

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