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M. Elyas Karim

not suffered climate change–based human aggression in a tangible way. It is possible, therefore, that MENA culture itself is highly vulnerable to heat aggression or that conditions in MENA in this regard have changed more dramatically in relation to human limits than they have elsewhere. The current conflicts of Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya reflect a clash among regional and global competitors in the MENA region, one that may not have a single cause. In other words, although climate change is a

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Jonathan Friedrich, Jannik Stahl, Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, and Jennifer M. Fitchett

://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4851 . 10.1002/joc.4851 Kurniawan , F. , L. Adrianto , D. G. Bengen , and L. B. Prasetyo , 2016 : Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia . Global Ecol. Conserv. , 6 , 308 – 326 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2016.04.001 . 10.1016/j.gecco.2016.04.001 Lam , C. K. C. , M. Loughnan , and N. Tapper , 2018 : Visitors’ perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at

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Jaume Rosselló and Aon Waqas

variability, whereas domestic tourism is more responsive to variability within the year of the trip. Rosselló et al. (2011) focus on outbound flows from the United Kingdom. They estimate the sensitivity of this tourist time series to weather anomalies, showing that mean temperature, heat waves, frost, and sunshine days are the weather variables that can be significantly related to the dynamics of time series for outbound British flows. Other case studies that explore the relations between weather and

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Randall S. Cerveny, Pierre Bessemoulin, Christopher C. Burt, Mary Ann Cooper, Zhang Cunjie, Ashraf Dewan, Jonathan Finch, Ronald L. Holle, Laurence Kalkstein, Andries Kruger, Tsz-cheung Lee, Rodney Martínez, M. Mohapatra, D. R. Pattanaik, Thomas C. Peterson, Scott Sheridan, Blair Trewin, Andrew Tait, and M. M. Abdel Wahab

and the adaptation or resilience to the event. For example, heat wave–related mortality tends to decrease as air conditioning becomes more widespread. Similarly, lightning casualties decrease when munitions storage facilities install lightning rods and athletic programs establish lightning safety protocols ( Walsh et al. 2013 ). Overall mortality can also decrease as a result of continuous improvement in related forecasting and warning infrastructure. For example, the MeteoAlarm system in Europe

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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

stressors can impact the dynamics of stormwater and the effectiveness of stormwater management strategies. Through creating diagrams, managers learn how multiple stressors can work in concert to exacerbate stormwater flows and impacts. For example, participants in McClellanville, South Carolina, noted that increased rainfall variability and heat may alter the structure of soils, leading to much lower rates of infiltration than would be expected if rain came in smaller amounts more regularly. The

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Abigail Sullivan and Dave D. White

; Salvaggio et al. 2014 ) and the urban heat island effect in Phoenix ( Guhathakurta and Gober 2007 ). Additionally, all three areas rely on the Colorado River basin for a significant portion of their municipal water supply, which is projected to experience prolonged and intensified droughts ( Cook et al. 2015 ). Vulnerability to climate change is a human-produced trait; that is, communities are not inherently vulnerable to climate change impacts ( Kelly and Adger 2000 ). As decision-makers evaluate

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Eliza de Vet

challenges. Characteristically, the Build-Up research week was less than comfortable and practically difficult, not only due to heat but, of equal importance, to high humidity. During this time, participants appreciated rain, wind, and cloud cover—“Finally, relief from the heat. It’s not a big storm (yet!) just a light shower … my body feels alive and refreshed again” (Jenny). The second research week began like any other during the Wet season—warm and humid, with welcomed overcast skies and diurnal

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Piotr Matczak, Dariusz Graczyk, Adam Choryński, Iwona Pińskwar, and Viktoria Takacs

regular heat and cold waves in Warsaw with the proverb “Barbara on water Christmas on ice,” and determined the accuracy of the proverb as 53%. Furthermore, studies of Kołodziej et al. (2004) , Liniewicz (1992) , and Morawska-Horawska (1988) tested one or a few proverbs for a city or a larger territory. These studies generally indicate the limited forecasting accuracy of the proverbs. In general, it is argued that the knowledge contained in proverbs is relevant for institutions dealing with

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Yun Su, Yuan Kang, Xianshuai Zhai, and Xiuqi Fang

groups during cold periods ( Zhang et al. 2011 ; Wang 1996 ). Tol and Wagner (2010) also suggest that reductions in heat input reduce the land carrying capacity of traditional agricultural societies, and most wars occur in cold periods. However, some scholars believe that climate warming leads to more wars ( Su et al. 2016 ). A warm and humid climate is conducive to increased grassland productivity, thereby providing resources for nomadic groups to wage wars. For example, the warm and humid

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Avital Li and James Ford

Panama as the most vulnerable to future climatic change using a “climatic space” variable, which measures average projected climatic changes in different ecosystem patches compared to interannual climatic variation in the past 40 years. A drying pattern is predicted for Central America, with a decrease in summer precipitation and intensification of the mid-summer drought phenomenon ( Fábrega et al. 2013 ; Hidalgo et al. 2013 ). Drought and heat stress increase the vulnerability of forests to tree

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