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Maria K. Flatau, Lynne Talley, and Pearn P. Niiler

observed by drifters were smaller. North of the Faeroe Ridge, the stronger gradient east of the Faeroe Islands during the positive years agreed with the velocity anomaly calculated from the altimetry results. However, we were not able to observe these velocity changes in the drifter data. The observed SST difference between negative and positive NAO ( Fig. 12a ) shows overall cooler SST in most of the subpolar region during positive NAO. This corresponds to an overall increased heat loss ( Fig. 12b

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Wenju Cai, Tim Cowan, Stuart Godfrey, and Susan Wijffels

). Thus, the location of Ekman convergence, its alignment with the southern midlatitude fast warming rate, and the zonal and vertical structure of the warming all imply a role by the wind changes. b. Pattern of wind-driven depth-integrated steric height If the coupled system is in a steady state, a Sverdrup-like wind-driven circulation model, such as Godfrey’s Island Rule model ( Godfrey 1989 ), may be used to predict where the ocean is storing the heat, regardless of where the heat is derived. A

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Evan Weller, Manuel Nunez, Gary Meyers, and Itsara Masiri

seems to be well mirrored by Willis Island. b. Heat fluxes during the 2002 mass coral bleaching event This section examines a period where high SSTs and solar radiation were observed in early 2002, and that coincided with a period of mass coral bleaching event for the GBR. It may be observed that the interannual variability of the mean Q NET and SST for the region ( Fig. 8a ) shows that the summers of 1997/98 and 2001/02 recorded the highest monthly amounts of positive Q NET (or highest heat

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M. Årthun, T. Eldevik, L. H. Smedsrud, Ø. Skagseth, and R. B. Ingvaldsen

volume and heat transport between Norway and Bear Island [the Barents Sea Opening (BSO)]. (b) Schematic of the Barents Sea long-term mean heat flux, heat transport, and factors related to a variable sea ice area ( A ice ); HT, VT, and T are the mean heat transport (TW), volume transport, and temperature of the Atlantic inflow (denoted BSO) and the balancing outflow (denoted out; see Table 2 for individual sections), respectively; also, HC is integrated heat content, HF net net heat flux to the

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Maria Flatau, Lynne Talley, and David Musgrave

addition, the repeated Canadian hydrographic sections from Vancouver Island to ocean weather station Papa were used to complete a box around the Gulf of Alaska for the purpose of heat budgets. The datasets are described more fully in section 3 . The 1991–94 El Niño was rather unusual. As shown by Trenberth and Hoar (1996) , statistical analysis indicates that it was unexpected given the previous record and may have been partly caused by anthropogenic changes. During this event, persistent warm SST

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Jin-Ming Feng, Yong-Li Wang, Zhu-Guo Ma, and Yong-He Liu

urbanization occurs in developing countries. The expansion of urban areas and increased urban activities have serious impacts on urban environments. These impacts are mainly represented by anthropogenic heat emission and massive changes of land cover ( Ichinose et al. 1999 ). There are many previous works referring to the impact of urban activities ( Oke 1995 ; Li et al. 2004 ; Roth 2007 ). Previous modeling studies of the urban heat island (UHI) effect mainly focus on the city scale. Based on a modified

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Melissa Bowen, Jordan Markham, Philip Sutton, Xuebin Zhang, Quran Wu, Nick T. Shears, and Denise Fernandez

SST have also been linked to the horizontal transport of heat by ocean currents and to changes in midlatitude winds. Wu et al. (2012) link increasing SSTs in all three Southern Hemisphere subtropical western boundary currents, including the East Australian Current, to changes in wind stress curl over the ocean basins increasing transport or shifting the boundary currents. Hill et al. (2008) explain the trends and variations in temperature at Maria Island, Tasmania, as the result of changes in

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Fabio Boeira Dias, R. Fiedler, S. J. Marsland, C. M. Domingues, L. Clément, S. R. Rintoul, E. L. Mcdonagh, M. M. Mata, and A. Savita

1. Introduction The ocean plays a central role in the climate system by absorbing 93% of the extra heat from anthropogenic emissions ( Rhein et al. 2013 ) and mitigating surface warming ( Stocker 2013 ). The observed multidecadal increase in global ocean heat content (OHC) ( Domingues et al. 2008 ; Meyssignac et al. 2019 ), however, contributes to global mean sea level rise through thermal expansion ( Cazenave et al. 2018 ). Both ocean warming and sea level rise are projected to continue

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Anne Marie Treguier, Pierre Mathiot, Tim Graham, Dan Copsey, Camille Lique, and Jean Sterlin

described: the Jan Mayen Current, at the latitude of the Jan Mayen island ( Bourke et al. 1992 ) and the East Icelandic Current, north of Iceland ( Jónsson 2007 ). A westward recirculation branch, the Return Atlantic Current ( Bourke et al. 1988 ), is found at the latitudes of Fram Strait and may be eddy driven ( Hattermann et al. 2016 ). In a pioneering paper, Segtnan et al. (2011) constructed a full heat balance of the Nordic seas from observations. They compared the heat convergence into individual

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Hailong Liu, Wuyin Lin, and Minghua Zhang

radiative fluxes. Because we seek to validate the gridded surface flux data over the oceans, we only used the downward shortwave radiation from the radiometers to minimize the impact of Island. The 1-min surface insolation data are first quality controlled and then averaged to monthly means; they are used to obtain the net shortwave radiative heat flux by assuming a surface albedo of 5.5% that is typical over ocean at the equator ( Weller and Anderson 1996 ; Jin et al. 2004 ). The ARM data do not have

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