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Clement Guilloteau, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre Kirstetter, Jackson Tan, and George J. Huffman

1. Introduction Satellite-derived quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) products have been around for several decades and are now commonly used in climate studies ( Mehta and Yang 2008 ; Roca et al. 2014 ; Kerns and Chen 2020 ), hydrologic modeling and prediction ( Casse and Gosset 2015 ), and various other applications ( Kirschbaum et al. 2017 ), including vegetation monitoring ( Hilker et al. 2014 ; Suepa et al. 2016 ), landslide risk management ( Kirschbaum and Stanley 2018

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M. Petracca, L. P. D’Adderio, F. Porcù, G. Vulpiani, S. Sebastianelli, and S. Puca

unprecedented Ka-band (35 GHz) radar. GPM provides several precipitation products at different scales by using different sensors’ combinations and synergies. The DPR plays a key role in the GPM precipitation estimation scheme, being the main calibration instrument, serving as space reference for radiometer-derived global precipitation algorithms ( Neeck et al. 2014 ), and providing basic information on the vertical cloud structure ( Grecu et al. 2016 ). Three algorithms (KuPR algorithm, KaPR algorithm, and

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

understand orographic modification of frontal precipitation processes but also to satisfy the need for further development and refinement of algorithms used to convert GPM’s satellite measurements to precipitation amounts in midlatitudes. The algorithms applied to TRMM satellite data over a nearly 17-yr period have been very successful for rain measurement and characterizing tropical convection ( Simpson 1988 ; Simpson et al. 1996 ; Kummerow et al. 1998 ; Zipser et al. 2006 ; Huffman et al. 2007

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