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Jerome A. Smith and Gregory T. Bullard

error of about 12 cm s-~ in each range bin pertransmission (ping). Recording every ping allows thesurface wave directional spectrum to be estimated. Toexamine the underlying lower-frequency motions, 1min averages of the velocity data were also formed.For most of the experiment, data collection alternatedhourly between "wave-mode" runs, in which every pingis recorded (52-min duration), and Langmuir circulation or "LC-mode" runs, recording just l-min averages (68 min). During the initial 8 h of a wind

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Jerome A. Smith

designed to measurelower-frequency mixed layer motion associated withinternal waves, Langmuir circulation, etc. For this, theyperformed satisfactorily (Smith, Pinkel, and Weller1987). They were not designed to measure surfacewaves. The fact that they did well in this too indicatesthat (i) the technique is well suited to surface waves,as noted, and (ii) it should be possible to do better. Here, the issues involved in designing an acousticDoppler system for surface wave measurement are addressed. For

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A. C. Haza, E. D’Asaro, H. Chang, S. Chen, M. Curcic, C. Guigand, H. S. Huntley, G. Jacobs, G. Novelli, T. M. Özgökmen, A. C. Poje, E. Ryan, and A. Shcherbina

) Langmuir circulation and frontal convergences. To optimize the placement of each deployment, survey lines of drifters were also released. The P3 launches (four releases of three to nine drifters) occurred mostly during the P2 experiment in the same area. For this reason they are included in the P2 group in this study as are short survey line releases around this time. Finally, the last release (“test”) aimed to address the drogue-loss issue, which had become apparent by then. All of these deployments

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Brian Ward, Tim Fristedt, Adrian H. Callaghan, Graig Sutherland, Xavier Sanchez, Jérôme Vialard, and Anneke ten Doeschate

1. Introduction The ocean and atmosphere form a coupled system. Properties are transferred between these two fluids through the action of the air–sea fluxes of momentum, mass, and heat. Understanding momentum exchange is important for modeling the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean ( Stewart 1974) and for predicting their future states toward understanding climate ( Donelan et al. 2004) . Air–sea gas exchange contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by absorbing

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Rosario Q. Iannone, Daniele Romanini, Samir Kassi, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Erik R. Th Kerstel

measurements taken directly on the vapor compartment of the hydrological cycle also represent the missing link in the validation of global circulation modeling efforts. Currently, such models are not able to correctly describe the isotopic composition of precipitation in polar regions and, in fact, do not agree with each other ( Hoffmann et al. 2000 ; Werner and Heimann 2002 ; Helsen et al. 2004 ). Still, such models are supposed to put the use of ice-core isotope data as a temperature proxy on a firm

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Travis Miles, Wayne Slade, and Scott Glenn

: Sediment resuspension in the wakes of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 3533 – 3536 , . 10.1029/98GL02635 Evans , D. G. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Annual cycle of turbulent dissipation estimated from Seagliders . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 45 , 10 560 – 10 569 , . 10.1029/2018GL079966 Gargett , A. , J. Wells , A. E. Tejada-Martínez , and C. E. Grosch , 2004 : Langmuir supercells: A

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Matthew S. Spydell, Falk Feddersen, and Jamie Macmahan

scale-selective diffusivities [for a review, see LaCasce (2008 )]. Drifters are tracked with various methods, a brief history of which is found in Lumpkin et al. (2017) . Many modern drifters are tracked with GPS due to its affordability and accuracy (e.g., Schmidt et al. 2003 ; Ohlmann et al. 2017 ; Novelli et al. 2017 ). In addition to mean circulation patterns and diffusivities, surface horizontal divergence ( dU / dx + dV / dy ) and vertical vorticity ( dV / dx − dU / dy ) have been

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Jicai Zhang, Guoqing Li, Jiacheng Yi, Yanqiu Gao, and Anzhou Cao

of typhoons or hurricanes, the question will be quite different, which is a big challenge in oceanography. The enhanced mixing, the bubbles, the rough sea surface, and the Langmuir circulation will all influence the structures of VEVCs and Ekman current, both in space and time domains. In this situation, the typical Ekman theory might not be able to figure out the response of the upper ocean to extreme events. In the future work, we will focus on the improvement of the adjoint Ekman model to

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Suneil Iyer, Kyla Drushka, and Luc Rainville

variability of turbulence on scales of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. Wind, wave breaking, buoyancy forcing, wave-turbulence interactions, and Langmuir circulation drive turbulence in the upper tens of centimeters of the ocean ( Lombardo and Gregg 1989 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Soloviev and Lukas 2003 ; Huang and Qiao 2010 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Thomson 2012 ; Esters et al. 2018 ; Zippel et al. 2018 ). In this depth range, ε depends on wind stress and significant wave height, with higher

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Eric A. D'Asaro, David M. Farmer, James T. Osse, and Geoffrey T. Dairiki

. Weller, R., and J. F. Price, 1988: Langmuir circulation within the oceanic mixed layer. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 711-747.

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