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Je-Yuan Hsu

1. Introduction Surface gravity waves at the air–sea interface have critical influences on the momentum transfer from the wind to ocean current, via either the modification on ocean surface roughness length ( Smith et al. 1992 ) or wave breaking ( Melville and Rapp 1985 ). The Stokes drift velocity of surface waves can lead to Langmuir circulation ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ) and induce turbulent mixing for enhancing the entrainment of cold water from the seasonal thermocline, and thereby the

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Brian Ward
,
Tim Fristedt
,
Adrian H. Callaghan
,
Graig Sutherland
,
Xavier Sanchez
,
Jérôme Vialard
, and
Anneke ten Doeschate

1. Introduction The ocean and atmosphere form a coupled system. Properties are transferred between these two fluids through the action of the air–sea fluxes of momentum, mass, and heat. Understanding momentum exchange is important for modeling the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean ( Stewart 1974) and for predicting their future states toward understanding climate ( Donelan et al. 2004) . Air–sea gas exchange contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by absorbing

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Travis Miles
,
Wayne Slade
, and
Scott Glenn

: Sediment resuspension in the wakes of Hurricanes Edouard and Hortense . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 3533 – 3536 , https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL02635 . 10.1029/98GL02635 Evans , D. G. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Annual cycle of turbulent dissipation estimated from Seagliders . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 45 , 10 560 – 10 569 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079966 . 10.1029/2018GL079966 Gargett , A. , J. Wells , A. E. Tejada-Martínez , and C. E. Grosch , 2004 : Langmuir supercells: A

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Bofu Zheng
,
Andrew J. Lucas
,
Robert Pinkel
, and
Arnaud Le Boyer

-induced Stokes drift, Langmuir circulations, and other important processes in the upper ocean and ocean mixed layer. 6. Conclusions We present an algorithm to obtain ocean velocities from a vertical profiling vehicle below a surface buoy. The methodology requires a up- or down-looking high-frequency ADCP and a concurrent estimate of platform motion in three spatial dimensions and time. Using a test case, we show that a Nortek Signature1000 with AHRS, configured to sample at 16 Hz over a range of ∼20 m

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Matthew S. Spydell
,
Falk Feddersen
, and
Jamie Macmahan

scale-selective diffusivities [for a review, see LaCasce (2008 )]. Drifters are tracked with various methods, a brief history of which is found in Lumpkin et al. (2017) . Many modern drifters are tracked with GPS due to its affordability and accuracy (e.g., Schmidt et al. 2003 ; Ohlmann et al. 2017 ; Novelli et al. 2017 ). In addition to mean circulation patterns and diffusivities, surface horizontal divergence ( dU / dx + dV / dy ) and vertical vorticity ( dV / dx − dU / dy ) have been

Open access
Jicai Zhang
,
Guoqing Li
,
Jiacheng Yi
,
Yanqiu Gao
, and
Anzhou Cao

of typhoons or hurricanes, the question will be quite different, which is a big challenge in oceanography. The enhanced mixing, the bubbles, the rough sea surface, and the Langmuir circulation will all influence the structures of VEVCs and Ekman current, both in space and time domains. In this situation, the typical Ekman theory might not be able to figure out the response of the upper ocean to extreme events. In the future work, we will focus on the improvement of the adjoint Ekman model to

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Suneil Iyer
,
Kyla Drushka
, and
Luc Rainville

variability of turbulence on scales of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. Wind, wave breaking, buoyancy forcing, wave-turbulence interactions, and Langmuir circulation drive turbulence in the upper tens of centimeters of the ocean ( Lombardo and Gregg 1989 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Soloviev and Lukas 2003 ; Huang and Qiao 2010 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Thomson 2012 ; Esters et al. 2018 ; Zippel et al. 2018 ). In this depth range, ε depends on wind stress and significant wave height, with higher

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Eric A. D'Asaro
,
David M. Farmer
,
James T. Osse
, and
Geoffrey T. Dairiki

. Weller, R., and J. F. Price, 1988: Langmuir circulation within the oceanic mixed layer. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 711-747.

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R. Pinkel
and
J. A. Smith

environmental conditions. Since 1988 we have implemented coded transmissions in a number of field programs, including surfacewave experiments SWAPP and NOBS, arctic experiments CEAREX and pre-LEADS, and the many intervening test trips. Surface waves, Langmuir circulation, internal waves, and other upper-ocean phenomena have been measured. We find the codes to improveperformance reliably, even in the face of severe environmental distortion. As repeat sequence codes, orequivalents, become more widely used

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Jerome A. Smith

waves: Range and resolution. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 6 , 680 – 696 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1989)006<0680:DSASWR>2.0.CO;2 Smith, J. A. , 1998 : Evolution of Langmuir circulation during a storm. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 12649 – 12668 . 10.1029/97JC03611 Smith, J. A. , 1999 : Observations of wind, waves, and the mixed layer: The scaling of surface motion. The Wind-Driven Air–Sea Interface, M. L. Banner, Ed., University of New South Wales, 231–238 . Smith, J. A. , 2002 : The use of

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