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J. M. Intrieri, A. J. Bedard Jr., and R. M. Hardesty

nondimensional ratio ofinertial to gravitational forces.a. Meteorological observations for case 1 On 4 August 1986 a small thunderstorm line, 15 kmwest of the lidar, produced an outflow boundary thatpropagated at 7 m s-j toward the Mesogamma 86 site.This outflow collided with another boundary that originated in a thunderstorm cell 25 km to the east. Thecollision occurred at 2310 UTC just west of the towerand was scanned by the lidar in Range Height Indicator(RHI) mode along the line labeled AB in Fig. l a

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William L. Smith, Xia Lin Ma, Steven A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, and R. O. Knuteson

in the range of 500-1667 cm-I (20-6um) with a resolution of 1 cm-~ apodized. A more detailed discussion of the ground-based HIS M 120 instrument is given by Knuteson et al. ( 1991 ). In this study, cloud-base and cloud-top altitudes wereassigned from lidar observations made simultaneouslywith the HIS spectra. In the case of the NASA ER~2based observations, the lidar measurements of Spinhirne et al. (1988) were used. A description of the cloudaerosol lidar and its applications can be found in

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M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, and W. H. Fuller Jr.

form 10 March 1978) ABSTRACT Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol vertical distribution from October 1974 to ~uly 1976 overmidlatitude North America are presented. The results show the sudden increase in the stratospheric aerosolcontent after the eruption of the Volcltn de Fuego and its subsequent decline. The data are presented interms of lidar scattering ratio profiles, vertically integrated aerosol backscattering, and rawinsonde temperature profiles. In the

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Kenneth Sassen and Sally Benson

order to attach a representative interpolated temperature to each data point. All zenith cirrus cloud data reported here are formulated using these averaging, signal rejection, and manual identification schemes: the total amount of 75-m by 1-min data points is 1 272 440. The 53 671 off-zenith data points, however, were derived from 75-m single-shot data, because many of these observations were collected singly or in limited, manual elevation angle scans. 4. Lidar depolarization results a. Mean value

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Robin J. Hogan and Alessandro Battaglia

is that the associated time delay makes returning photons appear to have originated from a range beyond the distance to which they actually penetrated, an effect known as “pulse stretching.” This is particularly evident for spaceborne cloud lidar and radar because of the large detector footprint on the cloud: for lidar this occurs in observations of liquid water clouds ( Platt and Winker 1995 ) and for 94-GHz radar it occurs in deep convective clouds ( Battaglia et al. 2007 ). There is

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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, R. T. Austin, G. R. Patterson, D. L. Mitchell, and S. D. Miller

ARM program ( Liljegren 1994 ). In this particular study, the microwave radiometer data were utilized along with data from the CSIRO lidar and infrared radiometer in the LIRAD analysis. Some comparative observations with the radar instrumentation are described in Part II of this series ( Platt et al. 2002 , hereafter Part II). a. CSIRO lidar The CSIRO lidar used during the experiment was a recently completed multiwavelength scanning lidar comprising a QuantaRay CGR 11/3 pulsed, Nd:YAG laser as the

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Patrick Minnis, Patrick W. Heck, and David F. Young

: Parameterization of radiance fields. J. Atmos. Sci., 1279-1304.Plan, C. M. R., and A. C. Dilley, 1984: Determination of the cirrus single-scattering phase function from lidar and solar radiometric data. Appl. Opt., 23, 380-386. , D. W. Reynolds, and N. L. Abshire, 1980: Satellite and lidar observations of the albedo, emitlance and opticg depth of cirrus compared to model calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 195 204.Potter, G. L., R. D. Cess, P. Minnis, E. F. Harrison, and V. Ramana than, 1988

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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Manson, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, R. T. Austin, and J. H. Churnside

and stability of the atmosphere containing cirrus clouds will similarly be affected ( Arking and Ziskin 1994 ). Prabhakara et al. (1991) have detected extensive sheets of thin cirrus covering tropical regions, particularly the TWP. The earliest lidar observations of tropical cirrus were probably those of Davis (1971) with an aircraft-mounted lidar. Uthe and Russell (1976) also observed some high-altitude cirrus from Kwajalein Atoll with ground-based lidar. Griffith et al. (1980) made some

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Kenneth Sassen and John D. Horel

VOL. 47, No. 24 Although the lidar system was designed for tropospheric cloud studies, these observations were initiated in re sponse to rather spectacular red sunsets indicating an elevated layer that could be detected by our system. Occasionally, barely discernable cloud bands were also visible during daylight. The ruby lidar detected a scat tering layer between 14 and 16 km (all heights are given above mean sea level) whose peak backscattering level gradually rose over three successive evenings

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Tomislav Marić and Dale R. Durran

relatively wide gaps such as the Shelikof Strait ( Lackmann and Overland 1989 ) and the Strait of Juan de Fuca ( Colle and Mass 2000 ). Detailed observations of the above-surface flow in a narrow gap were finally obtained in the Wipp valley (Wipptal), during the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP), where observations were taken by aircraft, lidars, dropsondes, and a Doppler sodar ( Mayr et al. 2004 ). Several analyses of gap winds using the MAP data collected in the Wipptal have recently appeared. Gohm et

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