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W. Erick Rogers, Paul A. Hwang, and David W. Wang

000 km 2 ). The first of these is the one that prompted our analysis of the model: SandyDuck '97 ( section 4 ). The simulation is for the time period of 23 and 24 September 1997. The wind speeds are weak to moderate, with a small swell component from the open ocean. In the comparisons with the remotely sensed data (airborne lidar), a significant overprediction of peak wavenumber is evident [this dataset is described by Hwang et al. (2000) ; comparisons with the SWAN model are made by Rogers et

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Takuji Waseda, Takeshi Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Tamura

observations in search of a better understanding of giant waves. Freak waves are defined in this paper as wave exceeding twice the significant wave height of a given wave record. The basis of this definition is that the occurrence of those waves is very rare—about once every 3000 waves according to linear theory. Other definition exists such as 2.2 times the significant wave height and its occurrence is once every 16 000 waves. In retrospect, there were hints about the possible existence of freak waves in

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Lars Arneborg and Bengt Liljebladh

. Oceanogr. , 32 , 1554 – 1566 . Llewellyn Smith , S. G. , and W. R. Young , 2003 : Tidal conversion at a very steep ridge. J. Fluid Mech. , 495 , 175 – 191 . Munk , W. , and C. Wunsch , 1998 : Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Res. , 45 , 1977 – 2010 . Neiman , P. J. , R. M. Hardesty , M. A. Shapiro , and R. E. Cupp , 1988 : Doppler lidar observations of a downslope windstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 2265 – 2275 . Osborn , T. R

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Justin S. Rogers, Samantha A. Maticka, Ved Chirayath, C. Brock Woodson, Juan J. Alonso, and Stephen G. Monismith

sand bed ripples, as well as over many coral reef forms (as will be demonstrated in the results), is of the k – δ type. In circulation models, turbulence is often parameterized in Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approaches, which require a parameterization of the bottom roughness. New field-scale technology to measure bottom bathymetry is advancing rapidly with increasing resolution, including sonar, hyperspectral, lidar, and fluid-lensing techniques. Measured variability in bathymetry is

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Q. Wang, J. A. Kalogiros, S. R. Ramp, J. D. Paduan, G. Buzorius, and H. Jonsson

curl on local upwelling using observations has not been performed. Aircraft measurements with well designed flight patterns near the sea surface are capable of revealing the small-scale (≪100 km) spatial variation of the wind stress field. Thus, such measurements can be used to study the effects of wind stress curl on local upwelling if accurate estimates of the stress curl can be obtained through careful data processing. A large volume of integrated observations were collected in the area of

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Erik Sahlée, Ann-Sofi Smedman, Ulf Högström, and Anna Rutgersson

Conf. on Interactions of the Sea and Atmosphere, Portland, ME, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P1.5 . Andreas , E. L. , and J. DeCosmo , 2002 : The signature of sea spray in the HEXOS turbulent heat flux data. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 103 , 303 – 333 . Atlas , D. , B. Walter , S-H. Chou , and P. J. Sheu , 1986 : The structure of the unstable marine boundary layer viewed by lidar and aircraft observations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 1301 – 1318 . Brutsaert , W. , 1975 : A theory for

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E. J. Walsh, D. W. Hancock III, D. E. Hines, R. N. Swift, and J. F. Scott

resolution employed when the Hs reaches 5m, or when the SCR is operating at 800 m altitude. The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), described by Hoge et al. (1980), is also onboard theWFF aircraft. This laser system can profile the wavesat a 400 Hz rate to provide independent corroborationof the elevation data measured by the SCR at thecenter of its swath. Figure 2 shows comparative datataken at 230 m altitude by the SCR and AOL. TheAOL data have been averaged to correspond to theSCR spot size. The

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Paul A. Hwang, Jakov V. Toporkov, Mark A. Sletten, and Steven P. Menk

same geographic area but over an essentially unlimited fetch (wind direction from the northeast) and a long duration (more than 10-h steady wind); the data are obtained by an airborne scanning lidar system that produces directly the 3D map of the surface elevation (no velocity bunching effect). The wave spectrum of the mature windsea under almost unlimited fetch and duration is described very well by the equilibrium spectrum function (9) . Fig . 9. Spatial evolution of the (a) wavenumber and (b

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