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Amin K. Dezfuli, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jason Evans, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

troposphere. During the wet composite in April, the TEH lies at the leading edge of strong troughs, which are associated with cyclonic vorticity advection and warm, moist air transport from the Mediterranean and the northern Red Sea toward the region. These can provide favorable conditions for rainfall events. During the dry days, these features are not present: weak troughs move northwestward, far from the TEH, and the moisture flux toward the region is weak. However, the semipermanent high pressure cell

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Aiguo Dai and Kevin E. Trenberth

freshwater fluxes into world oceans ( Grabs et al. 1996 ), resulted in an addition of four rivers to our subset of ocean-reaching rivers. Finally, we selected 921 ocean-reaching rivers (including those entering the Mediterranean and Black Seas), whose station locations are shown in Fig. 1 together with a simulated network of the world's major river systems (by the river transport model described below). While the coasts in North and South Americas and Europe are well monitored, there are large river

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Barbara Turato, Oreste Reale, and Franco Siccardi

. Buzzi et al. (1998) investigated in detail this event, focusing on the numerical simulations of the flood over Piedmont (northwestern Italy) between 4 and 6 November 1994. A relatively intense midlatitude cyclone was present over the British Isles, with minimum center pressure of about 985 hPa. However, the sea level pressure was above 1010 hPa over most of the western Mediterranean, and only a hint of a cyclonic circulation could be inferred over the Mediterranean region, for a time shorter than

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Simon O. Krichak, Pinhas Alpert, and Melina Dayan

southwestern areas of the Mediterranean Sea, and then migrate to the east. During the migration process, the depressions usually weaken, though they often rejuvenate again when approaching Italy. An additional, very significant strengthening of the cyclones is often observed in the Cyprus area, where the lows regenerate in the lee of the Taurus Mountains of Turkey. The process normally takes place in the area of the Gulf of Antalya and Cyprus ( Alpert et al. 1995 ). The following synoptic analysis is

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P. A. Kassomenos and G. R. McGregor

precipitation is evident for MAM and SON. Precipitable water characteristics by SC and season are presented in Table 3 . Clear intersynoptic category contrasts in PW are apparent. Generally the highest PW values in any season are associated with synoptic categories that represent air masses originating to the south of the study area over the Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 3a ). These are a consequence of a low zonal flow index attributable to a well-developed trough over France and the Iberian Peninsula and a

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J. P. Evans and R. B. Smith

parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Being a dominantly arid area, relatively little precipitation recycling occurs over the land and the surrounding water bodies are major contributors to atmospheric water vapor. To the northwest is the Black Sea, to the northeast is the Caspian Sea, to the west is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area is dominated by storm systems that move in from the Mediterranean Sea, earlier modeling work

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Olga Zolina, Ambroise Dufour, Sergey K. Gulev, and Georgiy Stenchikov

heavy precipitation events intensified over the last three decades, particularly in the East African Rift Valley. The impact of the Red Sea on the climate of the adjacent continents is influenced not only by the evaporation from the Red Sea but also by moisture transports that are closely related to the regional and larger-scale circulation patterns, including the North African jets, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), ENSO, Indian monsoon, and Mediterranean circulation modes linked to the

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Nadav Peleg, Francesco Marra, Simone Fatichi, Peter Molnar, Efrat Morin, Ashish Sharma, and Paolo Burlando

storm scale. 2. Study area The study focuses on the eastern Mediterranean (EM), a region characterized by a sharp change from Mediterranean to semiarid and arid climates ( Fig. 1 ). Precipitation over the sea and the coastal region is generally brought by cold fronts and postfrontal systems associated with Mediterranean extratropical cyclones ( Goldreich 2012 ), while precipitation over the semiarid and arid regions is brought by extratropical cyclones, Syrian lows, active Red Sea trough systems

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Luis Gimeno, Raquel Nieto, Ricardo M. Trigo, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, and Juan Ignacio López-Moreno

climate scale, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The IP was the target region for this study, as it has interesting features associated with its location at midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea; these are both important sources of atmospheric moisture, whose influence on the IP could be very different because of the complex topography of the area. The IP orography exerts a strong influence

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M. Diakhaté, B. Rodríguez-Fonseca, I. Gómara, E. Mohino, A. L. Dieng, and A. T. Gaye

; Gómara et al. 2018 ). Many works have shown that seasonal rainfall variability over the Sahel is related to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and the Mediterranean Sea ( Rodríguez-Fonseca et al. 2015 , and references therein). In particular, a warming of Pacific and Atlantic tropical waters has been found to promote a decrease in seasonal Sahelian rainfall (e.g., Rowell 2001 ; Janicot et al. 2001 ; Mohino et al. 2011a , b ; Losada et al. 2010 ), while a

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