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Simon O. Krichak, Pinhas Alpert, and Melina Dayan

southwestern areas of the Mediterranean Sea, and then migrate to the east. During the migration process, the depressions usually weaken, though they often rejuvenate again when approaching Italy. An additional, very significant strengthening of the cyclones is often observed in the Cyprus area, where the lows regenerate in the lee of the Taurus Mountains of Turkey. The process normally takes place in the area of the Gulf of Antalya and Cyprus ( Alpert et al. 1995 ). The following synoptic analysis is

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P. A. Kassomenos and G. R. McGregor

precipitation is evident for MAM and SON. Precipitable water characteristics by SC and season are presented in Table 3 . Clear intersynoptic category contrasts in PW are apparent. Generally the highest PW values in any season are associated with synoptic categories that represent air masses originating to the south of the study area over the Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 3a ). These are a consequence of a low zonal flow index attributable to a well-developed trough over France and the Iberian Peninsula and a

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J. P. Evans and R. B. Smith

parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Being a dominantly arid area, relatively little precipitation recycling occurs over the land and the surrounding water bodies are major contributors to atmospheric water vapor. To the northwest is the Black Sea, to the northeast is the Caspian Sea, to the west is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area is dominated by storm systems that move in from the Mediterranean Sea, earlier modeling work

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Olga Zolina, Ambroise Dufour, Sergey K. Gulev, and Georgiy Stenchikov

heavy precipitation events intensified over the last three decades, particularly in the East African Rift Valley. The impact of the Red Sea on the climate of the adjacent continents is influenced not only by the evaporation from the Red Sea but also by moisture transports that are closely related to the regional and larger-scale circulation patterns, including the North African jets, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), ENSO, Indian monsoon, and Mediterranean circulation modes linked to the

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Nadav Peleg, Francesco Marra, Simone Fatichi, Peter Molnar, Efrat Morin, Ashish Sharma, and Paolo Burlando

storm scale. 2. Study area The study focuses on the eastern Mediterranean (EM), a region characterized by a sharp change from Mediterranean to semiarid and arid climates ( Fig. 1 ). Precipitation over the sea and the coastal region is generally brought by cold fronts and postfrontal systems associated with Mediterranean extratropical cyclones ( Goldreich 2012 ), while precipitation over the semiarid and arid regions is brought by extratropical cyclones, Syrian lows, active Red Sea trough systems

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Luis Gimeno, Raquel Nieto, Ricardo M. Trigo, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, and Juan Ignacio López-Moreno

climate scale, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The IP was the target region for this study, as it has interesting features associated with its location at midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea; these are both important sources of atmospheric moisture, whose influence on the IP could be very different because of the complex topography of the area. The IP orography exerts a strong influence

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M. Diakhaté, B. Rodríguez-Fonseca, I. Gómara, E. Mohino, A. L. Dieng, and A. T. Gaye

; Gómara et al. 2018 ). Many works have shown that seasonal rainfall variability over the Sahel is related to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and the Mediterranean Sea ( Rodríguez-Fonseca et al. 2015 , and references therein). In particular, a warming of Pacific and Atlantic tropical waters has been found to promote a decrease in seasonal Sahelian rainfall (e.g., Rowell 2001 ; Janicot et al. 2001 ; Mohino et al. 2011a , b ; Losada et al. 2010 ), while a

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Raju Attada, Hari Prasad Dasari, Ravi Kumar Kunchala, Sabique Langodan, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, Omar Knio, and Ibrahim Hoteit

, and GF over the period 2001–16. High rainfall bands are located over the NAP, the Arabian Gulf, and the Mediterranean region. A considerable amount of rainfall is also observed in the narrow zones over the southwestern AP followed by the central and southern parts of the Sarawat mountain ranges ( Fig. 1a ). The high rainfall in the NAP is mainly related to the passage of Mediterranean cyclonic storms (midlatitude westerlies). The alignment of the mountains along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea

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Marc P. Marcella and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

details of the observational network in a certain region. Therefore, CRU totals are not available for the Persian Gulf or other major water bodies in the study region such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Likewise, CRU values over mountainous regions, where station coverage is scarce, may also be somewhat inaccurate. The CRU data available for the past 50 yr (1952–2002) are used in this study. However, due to the lack of observations in this region, a large amount of smoothing may occur in CRU

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Daniel Paredes, Ricardo M. Trigo, Ricardo Garcia-Herrera, and Isabel Franco Trigo

influence of both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the precipitation regime over the Iberian Peninsula is characterized by a strong seasonal behavior ( Esteban-Parra et al. 1998 ; Trigo and DaCamara 2000 ). The central and western regions of Iberia are characterized by maximum rainfall records from November to February. However, eastern Iberia presents an absolute maximum in autumn and a secondary maximum in spring ( Rodriguez-Puebla et al. 1998 ; Trigo and Palutikof 2001 ). Thus, Iberia

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