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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

( Cooney 1970 ) followed by profiles of temperature ( Cohen et al. 1976 ). Availability of more powerful lasers (including those that operated in the ultraviolet region where scattering is more efficient) and improved receivers stimulated a renewal of interest in Raman lidar in the late 1980s. The improved technology enabled profiling of atmospheric temperature into the stratosphere ( Keckhut et al. 1990 ; Nedeljkovic et al. 1993 ) as well as investigation of lower-atmospheric moisture structure

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

is a horizontal view of the distribution of air masses at the ground. The broken line is the boundary (polar front) at the ground between a warm current from the west-southwest (white arrows), displacing to the east a wedge of cold air (black arrows) returning northward from a brief sojourn in southern latitudes. Along the boundary of the receding cold air (warm front) the warm air rises, and its moisture condenses and produces a broad area of rain or snow (shaded area). The upper part of the

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

ice particles ( Fig. 17-30 ). The maximum horizontal extent reached by an MCS also depends on it having a continual supply of moisture to supply the formation of new convective elements while old ones weaken and become part of the stratiform region of the MCS, and a host of topographic and radiative factors impact the moisture supply. Despite these obstacles, progress has been made on some aspects of dynamical understanding of MCSs. More or less contemporaneously with GATE, but not as part of the

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

current rotation and temperature feedbacks strongly drive the vorticity and surface divergence ( Chelton et al. 2004 ; Liu and Xie 2017 ). In recent years, a new frontier of satellite oceanography has been establishing to measure sea surface salinity (SSS) of the global ocean using L-band radiometry [the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions]. The synergy of different satellite measurements such as wind, SSH, SST, SSS, and ocean color

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

can be upward or downward. The ingredients for a convective storm are 1) the presence of water vapor in ascending air that releases latent heat of condensation, 2) the existence of conditional static instability, and 3) some process by which moist air is lifted to its level of free convection (LFC). These ingredients are all necessary and when moisture and instability are such that convective available potential energy (CAPE) is present, these ingredients are sufficient for the development of a

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

Intensive Operations Period . J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D05S14 , doi: 10.1029/2004JD005648 . Feltz , W. F. , W. L. Smith , H. B. Howell , R. O. Knuteson , H. Woolf , and H. E. Revercomb , 2003 : Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) . J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 584 – 597 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0584:NPOTMA>2.0.CO;2 . Ferrare , R. A. , D. D. Turner , L. A. Heilman

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Taroh Matsuno

of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 611–627 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1973)030<0611:DOBPOT>2.0.CO;2 .

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

locations as established for the IGY ( Fig. 21-9 ). Charles R. Stearns from the University of Wisconsin–Madison led the implementation of the satellite-transmitting automatic weather station (AWS) network ( Lazzara et al. 2012 ). Funded largely by the NSF, the AWS network in Antarctica now consists of about 60 active sites maintained primarily by the University of Wisconsin. The AWS units typically measure pressure, temperature, winds, and atmospheric moisture at 2–3 m above the surface at intervals of

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

–cloud–precipitation research (aerosol indirect effects). The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: The First 20 Years , Meteor. Monogr. , No. 57, Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi: 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0022.1 . Feltz , W. F. , W. L. Smith , H. B. Howell , R. O. Knuteson , H. Woolf , and H. E. Revercomb , 2003 : Near-continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) . J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 584 – 595 , doi: 10

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

validation of its accuracy. Figure 15-3 presents an analysis of RRTMG_LW accuracy relative to LBLRTM (as of 2007) for a set of 42 clear atmospheric profiles spanning a wide range of temperature and moisture values. For most cases, the accuracy of RRTMG_LW for clear-sky net flux is better than 1.5 W m −2 at all levels, and heating rates agree to within 0.2 K day −1 in the troposphere and 0.4 K day −1 in the stratosphere. RRTMG_SW accuracy in clear sky relative to RRTM_SW is within 3 W m −2 for flux

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