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Timothy J. Wagner and Ralph A. Petersen

approximately 400 km spatial density of the network is too coarse to directly resolve many subsynoptic-scale phenomena, especially those related to moisture. Satellites can only partially fill these gaps, as the vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer is still too coarse to resolve many important characteristics and continuous profiling over CONUS with hyperspectral sounders in geostationary orbit remains years away. If alternative types of profile observation were available to augment the

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Scott J. Richardson, Michael E. Splitt, and Barry M. Lesht

Meteorological Society 1997 ) that took place at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site during September of 1996 ( Stokes and Schwarts 1994 ) The WV IOP was designed to reduce the uncertainty in the specification of the vertical water vapor profile derived from various state-of-the-science moisture measuring devices including both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation. Reducing observational errors of in situ sensors is

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Jared W. Marquis, Mayra I. Oyola, James R. Campbell, Benjamin C. Ruston, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Emilio Cuevas, Jasper R. Lewis, Travis D. Toth, and Jianglong Zhang

temperature and moisture forecast skill increases via radiance assimilation (e.g., Le Marshall et al. 2005 ; Chahine et al. 2006 ; Le Marshall et al. 2006 ; Smith et al. 1970 ; Guidard et al. 2011 ; Hilton et al. 2012 ; Menzel et al. 2018 ). For instance, Fig. 1 shows the number of satellite observations ingested within 30 days of assimilation cycles ending on 1 June 2017, and their contribution to the reduction of the 24-h forecast error norm (J kg −1 ; calculated using adjoints of the forecast

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Gary J. Jedlovec

Statistical procedures are used to compare vertical profiles of temperature and moisture derived from VASwith three different algorithms to those of corresponding rawinsonde measurements for a clear-cold environment.To account for time and space discrepancies between the data, rawinsonde values were adjusted to the satellitesounding times. Both rawinsonde and satellite soundings were objectively analyzed onto a mesoscale grid. Thesegrid point values were compared at 50 mb pressure increments from the

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J. A. Schroeder, J. R. Jordan, and M. T. Decker

radiometer that has provided temperature, pressure, and moisture measurements continuously, unattended, since 1981. Each module consisls of one pair of microwave channels, whose frequenciesare chosen to facilitate the joint use of radio-frequency (RF) components, thus reducing hardware costs bynearly half. The number of modules included in a given system can be chosen to suit the altitude and accuracyrequirements for that particular application. The accuracy of temperatures and pressure heights retrieved

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Tony Reale, Bomin Sun, Franklin H. Tilley, and Michael Pettey

IGRA focuses on longer-term climate monitoring. NPROVS utilizes previous NOAA/EMC complex QC decisions based on differences from a collocated weather forecast background, whereas IGRA derives QC decisions based on differences from climatological statistics at each site. NPROVS includes reports from ships and dropsondes, and airmass characterizations based on temperature and moisture profile structures, clouds, and terrain, which are a lesser concern in IGRA. Value-added radiosonde analysis as

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D. O. Krovetz, M. A. Reiter, J. T. Sigmon, and F. S. Gilliam

developed for use in remote locations. The principal components of the POC detector are a moisture-sensitive resistance grid, a heater, a fan, and housing with rain shielding. Field testing at a mountain site shows that the detector functions properly when compared with observations of surface clouds or fog and meteorological parameters measured over the same time period. Although heavy, driving rain may require enlargement of the rain shield, the POC detector appears to be a rugged, low

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, and Junhong Wang

analyses in NAME. In section 2 , data sources used in this study are described and the dry bias of the SMN sondes is examined. In section 3 , a simple, yet effective, statistical correction technique is described that constrains the statistics of the moisture fields at the problem SMN sites to be consistent with that observed at more reliable sites, primarily the NCAR sites. A procedure for removing the daytime dry bias is also discussed. Impacts of these corrections on various moisture

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Ed R. Westwater, Michael J. Falls, and Ingrid A. Popa Fotino

,but statistically significant biases occur between the radiometer and the radiosondes. A bias of 0.162 cm ispresent between radiometer and NWS values during the day and 0.075 cm during the night, The comparisonshows that significant differences exist between the radiometer and the NWS moisture soundings when ther~lative humidity drops below 20 percent for pressures greater than 500 hPa. When this situation occurs, theNWS soundings contain a default dewpoint depre~on value of 30-C. After such data are removed

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Hua Xie, Nicholas R. Nalli, Shanna Sampson, Walter W. Wolf, Jun Li, Timothy J. Schmit, Christopher D. Barnet, Everette Joseph, Vernon R. Morris, and Fanglin Yang

GOES sounder operational retrieval algorithm for the GOES-R ABI to ensure continued availability of geostationary legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) products ( Jin et al. 2008 ). The LAP algorithm retrieves 101-level atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and surface skin temperature. Derived LAP products also include column-integrated products such as stability indices (viz., lifted index, convective available potential energy index, and Showalter index) and total column precipitable water

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