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Xin-Zhong Liang, Hyun I. Choi, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Yongjiu Dai, Everette Joseph, Julian X. L. Wang, and Praveen Kumar

). Several RCMs built upon the MM5 then emerged to address a wide range of applications ( Leung and Ghan 1999 ; Liang et al. 2001 ; Liang et al. 2004a ; Liang et al. 2004b ; Wei et al. 2002 ). Meanwhile, the next-generation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been developed ( Klemp et al. 2000 ; Michalakes 2000 ; Chen and Dudhia 2000 ; more information available online at ) to supersede the MM5. Accordingly, the Illinois State Water Survey then

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Souleymane Fall, Dev Niyogi, and Fredrick H. M. Semazzi

. 1977 . The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev. 105 : 317 – 333 . Reed , R. J. , E. Klinker , and A. Hollingsworth . 1988 . The structure and characteristics of African easterly wave disturbances as determined from the ECMWF operational analysis/forecast system. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 38 : 22 – 23 . Rowell , D. P. 1988 . Short range rainfall forecasting in the West African Sahel. Ph.D. thesis, University of

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Mary K. Butwin, Sibylle von Löwis, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Johann Thorsson, and Throstur Thorsteinsson

( Natsagdorj et al. 2002 ; Csavina et al. 2014 ). In this study, we analyze a set of PM events following the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in southern Iceland to determine if the events were likely dominated by freshly deposited ash or by the bulk available dust, ascertain the properties of the PM events, and consider the meteorological conditions that led to them. We apply the results of this analysis to provide thresholds that can be used for forecasting ash resuspension events following future

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Ashley E. Van Beusekom, Grizelle González, and Maria M. Rivera

precipitation values were derived from the observation amount and the number of days between observations, where the days between observations are all given the same mean daily precipitation. If a gauge had a known operational failure, the mean daily values were considered missing. Other researchers have noted that rainfall events are generally small (median daily rainfall of 3 mm) but numerous (267 rain days per year) ( Schellekens et al. 1999 ). Thus, assuming every day contributes to the total rain

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

experiment was the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, version 3.5) Model, a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed for both atmospheric research and operational applications ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). The simulations were conducted with three horizontal nested grids with grid spacing of 16, 4, and 1 km, respectively ( Figure 5 ). The coarser-resolution grid covers a good portion of the northern Pacific and western United States, and the finer-resolution grid covers the

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

NEE over the derived tower footprints ( Lin et al. 2003 ; Nehrkorn et al. 2010 ). The 4D meteorological fields used in STILT were calculated with the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) in the Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW, version 3.7 ( Michalakes et al. 2001 ). For the WRF boundary conditions, we used the NCEP Final (FNL) operational global analysis data with 1° horizontal resolution and a 6-hourly temporal resolution, respectively ( Kalnay et al. 1990 ) for 27 vertical levels. The NCEP

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

Thompson, 1980 ), and it is formulated using an Arakawa C grid ( Arakawa, 1966 ). The daily 1000-mb wind product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) [with the 1981–91 mean replaced by the Hellerman and Rosenstein ( Hellerman and Rosenstein, 1983 ; hereafter, HR) annual mean] drives the ocean circulation. Recent results from this class of models and additional model description are given by Hurlburt et al. ( Hurlburt et al., 1996 ). The model includes realistic bottom

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David M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud

-surface values for pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed are from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis; precipitation values are from a combination of monthly Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data; surface radiation values are from a combination of monthly International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data and ECMWF analysis. Values were linearly interpolated to an

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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

Center of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The assimilated data were obtained from a model forced with weekly mean NCEP operational atmospheric analyses of surface winds and heat fluxes. For more information, see Behringer et al. ( Behringer et al., 1998 ). The geopotential height and wind data at standard vertical levels came from the monthly NCEP reanalysis data ( Kalnay et al., 1996 ). The NCEP reanalysis data were acquired as 5° × 2.5° arrays. Finally, the precipitation

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Mônica Carneiro Alves Senna, Marcos Heil Costa, Lucía Iracema Chipponelli Pinto, Hewlley Maria Acioli Imbuzeiro, Luciana Mara Freitas Diniz, and Gabrielle Ferreira Pires

Precipitation (CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 ), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Huffman et al. 1997 ), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Kummerow et al. 1998 ); and two reanalysis datasets: National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) ( Uppala et al. 2005 ). All available data in the time series are used to describe the precipitation climatology. The

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