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Kevin J. Garrett, Ping Yang, Shaima L. Nasiri, Christopher R. Yost, and Bryan A. Baum

from various general circulation models (GCMs) and in model comparisons with flux measurements ( Potter and Cess 2004 ; Webb et al. 2001 ). To increase confidence in climate prediction, global observations on fine spatial and temporal scales from satellite-based instruments are needed to retrieve ice cloud properties such as effective particle size and cloud optical thickness, which are essential to climate studies ( Wielicki et al. 1995 ). Methodologies have been developed for daytime retrievals

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Salvador Matamoros, Josep-Abel González, and Josep Calbó

knowledge of the physical and, in particular, of optical characteristics of clouds is essential in describing and predicting potential cloud feedbacks that may affect the climate. The transmission, reflection, and absorption by clouds depend on the solar zenith angle, surface albedo, and cloud physical properties themselves. Among the cloud properties, the cloud optical depth (hereinafter COD or τ c ) and effective radius r e of the droplet size distribution are the most relevant. Experimental

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Sergey Y. Matrosov, Matthew D. Shupe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, and Paquita Zuidema

clouds or portions of clouds with populations of very small particles. This limitation is dependent on radar sensitivity and the implications of the radar missing small particles changes, depending on the applications. Accurate modeling of the ice cloud impact on the earth's radiation budget and climate requires parameterization of cloud optical properties, such as the extinction coefficient, optical thickness, phase function, and single-scattering albedo, in terms of retrieved or assumed cloud

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Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Carl G. Schmitt, Yu Xie, Aaron Bansemer, Yong-Xiang Hu, and Zhibo Zhang

1. Introduction To infer and intercompare the microphysical and optical properties of ice clouds from the current suite of spaceborne sensors that compose the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System, the bulk single-scattering properties of the ice clouds must be described in a consistent fashion from the visible (VIS: 0.4 < λ < 0.75 μ m) through the infrared (IR: 5 < λ < 15 μ m) spectral region. The models need to encompass the passive radiometric

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Gerald G. Mace, Yuying Zhang, Steven Platnick, Michael D. King, Patrick Minnis, and Ping Yang

appendix A and used in the next section is that the Z -velocity algorithm has much higher (36 s) temporal resolution and provides vertically resolved cloud properties. It can also be applied without requiring the layer to be optically thin and observable without the presence of lower-level clouds. However, the approach has significant limitations since in only a relatively small number of situations can the vertical air motion be reliably separated from the particle motions using a statistical

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C. M. Naud, I. Rangwala, M. Xu, and J. R. Miller

clouds in the climatology of the Tibetan Plateau, they also reveal how difficult it is to quantify their impact. Both studies rely on ground-based observations (GB) from meteorological and research stations to analyze trends. These stations are mostly found in the more populated regions of the eastern part of the plateau and only report cloud cover, lacking the capabilities to provide information on cloud optical properties. In this study, we expand on the previous work described above by exploring

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J. J. Deluisi, P. M. Furukawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, and J. A. Weinman

exploratory field experiment was undertaken' to determine the practicality of a method specificallydesigned to obtain the optical properties of aerosols as they relate to the earth's radiation balance. Themethod requires a basic set of data consisting of the vertical distribution of aerosol concentrations, sizedistribution, optical depth, and net radiation fluxes. From these data radiation absorptions are determined,and effective aerosol refractive indices consistent with the actual absorption are deduced

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Yue Li, Gerald R. North, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

the power spectrum suggests that a portion of cirrus may be formed in situ, but this may be due in part to the large portion of missing data. 4. Summary and discussion To illustrate the wealth of information that the MODIS cloud retrieval products provide about atmospheric dynamical phenomena, more than 6 years of MODIS cloud-top properties from the Aqua platform, specifically cloud-top temperature and cirrus optical thickness, are used to study equatorial wave properties. A space–time spectral

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Yong-Keun Lee, Jason A. Otkin, and Thomas J. Greenwald

this study, the accuracy of the simulated cloud field, including thin cirrus clouds, contained in a CONUS-scale simulation with 2-km horizontal resolution is evaluated through a comparison of synthetic and observed BTs from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). MODIS products provide operational comprehensive information about atmospheric status, including visible and infrared band radiances, as well as cloud physical and optical properties ( Platnick et al. 2003 ). Since thin

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Yuying Zhang and Gerald G. Mace

dependent on a derived cloud temperature. An incorrect determination of the location of the hydrometeor layer in the vertical direction will produce errors in the retrievals ( Miller et al. 2000 ). It is demonstrated by Cooper et al. (2003) that accurate cloud boundary information may increase the accuracy of the retrieved cirrus optical depth by a factor of 3. A strategy to document the global properties of clouds in general and cirrus in particular must rely heavily on each of these observational

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