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Shoichiro Fukao, Toru Sato, Toshitaka Tsuda, Susumu Kato, Motoyuki Inaba, and Iwane Kimura

(or Reynoldsstress) gives friction (acceleration or deceleration) tosynoptic or planetary-scale atmospheric motions (Holton, 1972). Particularly important is the vertical convergence of the horizontal flux that causes the net acceleration of the general mean circulation. Recently,it has been suggested that internal gravity waves playan essential role in transporting momentum flux fromthe lower atmosphere upward into the mesosphere (e.g.,Lindzen, 1981; Holton, 1982; Matsuno, 1982). However, there

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Liguo Su, Richard L. Collins, David A. Krueger, and Chiao-Yao She

-scale motions associated with these waves, atmospheric model studies that employ parameterizations of the wave forcing and are constrained by observations, and balance studies where the forcing that cannot be explained in terms of large-scale planetary waves is attributed to gravity waves [see discussion in recent collections of papers in the monographs edited by Johnson and Killeen (1995) and Siskind et al. (2000) , and the review article by Fritts and Alexander (2003) ]. The small-scale wave

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Z. Sheng, Y. Jiang, L. Wan, and Z. Q. Fan

retrieval product using global radiosonde data . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 6 , 1073 – 1083 , doi: 10.5194/amt-6-1073-2013 . Wang, R. , Zhang S. D. , Yang H. G. , and Huang K. M. , 2012 : Characteristics of mid-latitude planetary waves in the lower atmosphere derived from radiosonde data . Ann. Geophys. , 30 , 1463 – 1477 , doi: 10.5194/angeo-30-1463-2012 . Zhang, K. , Fu E. , Silcock D. , Wang Y. , and Kuleshov Y. , 2011 : An investigation of atmospheric temperature profiles in the

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Ruping Mo

coupling has recently been outlined by Ambaum and Hoskins (2002) , among others. The second and third modes are illustrative of the classical theory of planetary-wave propagation in the atmosphere ( Charney and Drazin 1961 ; Matsuno 1970 ; Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; McIntyre 1982 ; Perlwitz et al. 2000 ). We see that the vertical waveguide between the troposphere and stratosphere in the NH winter acts to focus the upward-propagating Rossby waves into the polar cap. It usually allows only wave 1

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A. Manderson, M. D. Rayson, E. Cripps, M. Girolami, J. P. Gosling, M. Hodkiewicz, G. N. Ivey, and N. L. Jones

1. Introduction The horizontal and vertical distribution of the buoyancy frequency (1) N ⁡ ( z ) = ⁡ ( − g ρ 0 d ρ d z ) 1 / 2 and hence the background density ρ ⁡ ( z ) is one of the most important dynamical characteristics of the ocean ( Phillips 1977 ). The background density (or buoyancy frequency) is a key input variable in many ocean process models including planetary wave propagation ( Gill 1982 ), internal gravity wave energy flux calculations ( Nash et al. 2005 ; Lee et al. 2018

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Raul Vicen-Bueno, Jochen Horstmann, Eric Terril, Tony de Paolo, and Jens Dannenberg

retrieved from radar-image sequences . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 3352 , doi:10.1029/2003JC002056 . Drobinski, P. , and Foster R. C. , 2003 : On the origin of near-surface streaks in the neutrally-stratified planetary boundary layer . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 108 , 247 – 256 . Flampouris, S. , Ziemer F. , and Seemann J. , 2008 : Accuracy of bathymetric assessment by locally analyzing radar ocean wave imagery (February 2008) . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 46 , 2906 – 2913 , doi

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Carl Wunsch

DECEMBER 1989 CARL WUNSCH 891Sampling Characteristics of Satellite Orbits CARL WUNSCHCenter for Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Department of Earth,Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Manuscript received 12 September 1988, in final form 28 March 1989)ABSTRACT The irregular space-time sampling of any finite region by an orbiting

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W. H. Munk and F. Zachariasen

554 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUMEgRefraction of Sound by Islands and Seamounts W. H. MUNKInstitute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California F. ZACHARIASENCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California(Manuscript received 9 August 1990, in final form 3 January 1991

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G. Bonino, P. Trivero, G. Elisei, and A. Marzorati

experiment.1. Introduction A new radio-acoustic technique for the remote sensing of temperature profile in the lower atmosphere hasbeen developed in recent years. The technique usedfor measurements is generally a Doppler tracking ofan acoustic pulse by a continuous wave radar. Measurement of the sound speed as a function of delayfrom the start of the acoustic beam provides the temperature vertical profile. The Radio Acoustic SoundingSystem (RASS) produces its own target for radiowavescattering and can

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M. D. Yamanaka, Y. Matsuzaka, J. Nishimura, T. Yamagami, and H. Tanaka

April 1984, in final form 20 March 1985)ABSTRACT In order to observe stratospheric gravity waves and turbulence, a Gill-type anemometer was improved byusing sapphire pivot bearings and photocoupler tachometers. The anemometer has a threshold velocity of lessthan 1 m s-~ in the middle stratosphere, and the performance is very stable for mechanical shocks and temperaturevariations. The first observational flight of the anemometer was successfully carried out in September 1982.The most interesting

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