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F. M. Ralph, M. Dettinger, D. Lavers, I. V. Gorodetskaya, A. Martin, M. Viale, A. B. White, N. Oakley, J. Rutz, J. R. Spackman, H. Wernli, and J. Cordeira

in the writing where new ideas garnered during the conference can be incorporated into the monograph. IARC GOALS. The goals of the 2016 IARC were to evaluate the current state and applications of the science of the midlatitude atmospheric water cycle, with an emphasis on ARs and associated processes (e.g., WCB and TME); discuss differing regional perspectives; assess current forecasting capabilities; and plan for future scientific and practical challenges. IARC received 78 abstracts on ARs, their

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S. A. Tessendorf, B. Boe, B. Geerts, M. J. Manton, S. Parkinson, and R. Rasmussen

observational technologies, is in the ability to better define windows of seeding opportunity and to detect a seeding response, as recently demonstrated in the Snowy Mountains studies. Moreover, the use of model reanalysis datasets or high-resolution regional climate model output to study the climatology of seeding conditions over mountain barriers where observations are limited—or not available at all—has been instrumental in evaluating the fraction of winter storms that are “seedable.” CHALLENGES REMAIN

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Edward D. Zaron and Cesar B. Rocha

1–100-km-scale range, as well as for their effects on the spatial variability of mixing and routes to dissipation. Recent studies have highlighted the potential impacts of these wave–turbulence interactions on not only high-resolution in situ observations but also high-resolution satellite observations. The workshop sought to review what is known about internal-wave balanced interactions, identify questions that still need to be addressed, and consider how to meet these new challenges in the

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Juliane Otto, Calum Brown, Carlo Buontempo, Francisco Doblas-Reyes, Daniela Jacob, Martin Juckes, Elke Keup-Thiel, Blaz Kurnik, Jörg Schulz, Andrea Taylor, Tijl Verhoelst, and Peter Walton

communities. It was suggested that something analogous to the metrological traceability chain documenting the processing steps taken to produce remote sensing datasets (i.e., by QA4ECV) could be attractive for climate service products, ensuring that no uncertainty information gets lost in the chain while being tailored to the subsequent user needs. Scale group. Depending on the temporal and spatial scale of the study, different sources of uncertainty dominate; for example, random effects might be averaged

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Samson Hagos, Gregory R. Foltz, Chidong Zhang, Elizabeth Thompson, Hyodae Seo, Sue Chen, Antonietta Capotondi, Kevin A. Reed, Charlotte DeMott, and Alain Protat

MJO evolution. By suppressing vertical mixing and entrainment cooling from the subsurface, salinity-stratified barrier layers can trap heat and momentum in the upper oceans and amplify the effects of westerly wind bursts on surface currents ( Cronin and McPhaden 2002 ). Through this mechanism, the barrier layer dynamics associated with rainfall, river outflow, and horizontal advection also play a critical role in tropical cyclone intensification and may affect SST and air–sea interactions during

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Hye-Yeong Chun, Jung-Hoon Kim, Dan-Bi Lee, Soo-Hyun Kim, Matt Strahan, Brian Pettegrew, Philip Gill, Paul D. Williams, Ulrich Schumann, Joel Tenenbaum, Young-Gon Lee, Hee-Wook Choi, In-Sul Song, Ye-Ji Park, and Robert D. Sharman

aviation hazard forecasts. Current global forecasts from the two WAFCs are produced from deterministic model output. To communicate forecast uncertainty, the Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) is used for probabilistic aviation weather forecasts ( Gill and Buchanan 2014 ). Here, a multimodel ensemble combining MOGREPS and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble is used and evaluated using the observed derived equivalent vertical gust

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Daeha Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, and Seon Tae Kim

economically better, since societal costs substantially increase with uncertainty and irreversibility. The conclusions drawn by the two speakers seemed to enhance the participants’ perception of increasing climatic risks. Nonetheless, the effects of this perception are likely temporary and are thus insufficient to result in the necessary actions for mitigation and adaptation. More effort is needed to close the vast gap between the science and actionable policies. Several speakers at the event encouraged

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Robert Erhardt, Jesse Bell, Brian Blanton, Frank Nutter, Megan Robinson, and Richard Smith

from an interaction of several (possibly nonextreme) causes, with Mora et al. (2017) receiving attention for highlighting the combined causal effects of heat and humidity that lead to extreme heatwaves. The group was particularly interested in questions of attribution of extremes, along with appropriate risk measures for extremes from a financial risk management perspective, and some related papers discussed were Bindoff et al. (2013) , Acerbi and Tasche (2002) , and Artzner et al. (1999

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Michael J. Brewer, Annette Hollingshead, Jenny Dissen, Najimah Jones, and Laura F. Webster

available with corresponding use examples, or replicating NCEI’s Regional Climate Center Applied Climate Information System (ACIS) capabilities could facilitate data extraction for bulk access users. NCEI serves industries across every sector of the U.S. economy; each have unique applications and hence require distinct data, variables, resolution, data coverage, period, frequency, and analyses. The request for provider-side, robust analytic capabilities was repeated frequently throughout the conference

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Travis A. O’Brien, Ashley E. Payne, Christine A. Shields, Jonathan Rutz, Swen Brands, Christopher Castellano, Jiayi Chen, William Cleveland, Michael J. DeFlorio, Naomi Goldenson, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Héctor Inda Díaz, Karthik Kashinath, Brian Kawzenuk, Sol Kim, Mikhail Krinitskiy, Juan M. Lora, Beth McClenny, Allison Michaelis, John P. O’Brien, Christina M. Patricola, Alexandre M. Ramos, Eric J. Shearer, Wen-Wen Tung, Paul A. Ullrich, Michael F. Wehner, Kevin Yang, Rudong Zhang, Zhenhai Zhang, and Yang Zhou

reanalysis [Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA2)]. The Second ARTMIP Workshop ( Shields et al. 2019 ) was oriented around discussion of tier 1 results and around designing and planning the first set of tier 2 experiments: the tier 2 C20C+ experiment and the tier 2 CMIP5/6 experiment. Both initial tier 2 experiments are focused on understanding the effects of climate change on AR characteristics, with the C20C+ experiment focusing on a set of high

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