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Michael J. DeFlorio, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, David A. Lavers, F. Martin Ralph, and Frédéric Vitart

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow plumes of strong horizontal water vapor transport that are typically found in the midlatitudes ahead of the cold front of an extratropical cyclone ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Cordeira et al. 2013 ; American Meteorological Society 2017 ). They can intensify downstream precipitation and influence flooding, snowpack, and water availability (e.g., Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

1. Introduction One of the major impacts of global warming is the change in terrestrial hydrological system and cycles ( Donnelly et al. 2017 ; Mondal and Mujumdar 2012 ; Peña-Gallardo et al. 2019 ; Xie et al. 2015 ), including spatially complex trend patterns of river discharge ( Dai et al. 2009 ; Gudmundsson et al. 2019 ; Liu et al. 2019 ; Tananaev et al. 2016 ) and the frequency and intensity of extreme hydrological events ( Donat et al. 2014 ; Ji et al. 2015 ; Muñoz et al. 2016

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Elizabeth A. Clark, Justin Sheffield, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction River runoff is an important term in the global land and ocean water balances. On global average, roughly 30%–40% of precipitation falling over land reaches the oceans as river runoff (e.g., Baumgartner and Reichel 1975 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ). In addition to its role in the global water balance, humans depend on river flows to provide municipal and agricultural water supply, transportation, electricity, recreation, and many other uses. Several recent studies have examined

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, Dai Yamazaki, Bertrand Decharme, Fabrice Papa, and Nelly Mognard

climate system variability. Continental surface waters also influence the surface energy balance and feedback effects between the land surface and atmosphere ( Krinner 2003 ; Mohamed et al. 2005 ). They also play an important role on water discharges of large rivers, sediment dynamics ( Dunne et al. 1998 ), and freshwater chemistry (e.g., Melack et al. 2004 ). Finally, wetlands have been shown to have a significant impact on the interannual variability of global methane emissions ( Bousquet et al

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Erick R. Rivera, Francina Dominguez, and Christopher L. Castro

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are filamentary water vapor fluxes that cover about 10% of the globe and are responsible for most of the meridional water vapor transport in the extratropical atmosphere ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). These features are typically located in the warm sector of major extratropical cyclones where a pre-cold-front low-level jet is present ( Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ). Generally

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Qian Cao, Ali Mehran, F. Martin Ralph, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction A body of work over the last decade or so has demonstrated that most major floods along the U.S. West Coast are attributable to atmospheric rivers (ARs; e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Barth et al. 2017 ), which are long, narrow, and transient corridors of anomalously strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2018 ). Accompanied by warm air temperatures and strong low-level winds, AR landfalls may

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Jinliang Liu and Ronald E. Stewart

1. Introduction Water vapor transport into and out of a region is a major factor associated with its climate. Extensive water budget analyses have been carried out over a number of regions around the world such as the Arctic ( Walsh et al. 1994 ; Serreze et al. 1995 ; Cullather et al. 2000 ), Mississippi River basin ( Roads et al. 1998 ; Betts et al. 1999 ; Roads and Betts 2000 ; Roads 2002 ; Roads et al. 2002 , and many others), and the Mackenzie River basin ( Walsh et al. 1994

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Julie A. Vano, Tapash Das, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction The Colorado River is the major water source for much of the southwestern United States. The river’s discharge is regulated by numerous dams on tributaries and two major main stem dams—Glen Canyon and Hoover, which form impoundments (Lakes Powell and Mead, respectively) that store about four times the mean annual natural flow of the river (observed discharge adjusted for effects of upstream diversions and storage) at its mouth. In a relative sense, the storage provided by these

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Matthew C. Sanders, Jason M. Cordeira, and Nicholas D. Metz

1. Introduction Ice jams are common cold-season events in many mid- and high-latitude countries around the world ( Rokaya et al. 2018 ) that affect up to 60% of river reaches in the Northern Hemisphere ( Bennett and Prowse 2010 ). Multiple ice jam case studies reveal that North America is one of the most ice jam prone regions in the world ( Rokaya et al. 2018 ) and these ice jams can form on many rivers in the U.S. Northeast ( Fig. 1a ). Ice jams form when ice floes accumulate across a river

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G. Q. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Xuan, J. F. Liu, J. L. Jin, Z. X. Bao, R. M. He, C. S. Liu, Y. L. Liu, and X. L. Yan

precipitation, and evapotranspiration for 38 forested watersheds in New England, United States, and concluded climate warming could reduce runoff significantly. Jones et al. (2005) estimated the sensitivities of mean annual runoff in 22 Australian catchments to climate change using selected hydrological models, showing how results varied between models. Wang et al. (2011) analyzed hydrological characteristics of the Liao River basin, China, and its response to climate change and concluded that an increase

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