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Florian Sévellec, Mahdi Ben Jelloul, and Thierry Huck

1. Introduction One of the expected consequences of global warming is the modification of the water cycle, one of the main forcing mechanisms of the ocean thermohaline circulation. In actuality, freshwater fluxes have a local influence on the surface salinity, and thus on the ocean dynamics. Josey and Marsh (2005) show that sea surface salinity has been modified since the mid-1970s because of increased precipitation in the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar gyre. Modification of ocean salinity in

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Dan E. Kelley

2424 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME24Temperature-Salinity Criterion for Inhibition of Deep Convection DAN E. KELLEYOceanography Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada22 November 1993 and 28 March 1994 ABSTRACT Malmberg's salinity criterion for the inhibition of oceanic deep convection is extended here to account forincreases in salinity

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Shari L. Vaughan and Robert L. Molinari

goals: define the mean temperature and salinity properties of the DWBC and estimate timescales and magnitudes of its variability; determine the type of changes in temperature and salinity structure responsible for the variability between pairs of sections. The first goal is addressed in section 3 with mean properties described in 3a and variability in section 3b . Transect differences by depth and density are shown in section 4 . A method developed by Bindoff and McDougall (1994) is used in

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Yoeri M. Dijkstra and Henk M. Schuttelaars

. Before HR66 , classification of the estuarine salinity structure was usually based on the degree of observed stratification, ranging from well-mixed to salt wedge ( Pritchard 1955 ). However, using the subtidal width-averaged model of Hansen and Rattray (1965) , HR66 were able to elegantly show that estuarine dynamics cannot be described by just observing the amount of salinity stratification, but at least two parameters describing the flow and stratification should be considered. HR66 selected

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Annie P. S. Wong and Stephen C. Riser

ice-free months is 32 km, whereas the mean distance between each consecutive pair of interpolated positions during the ice-covered months is only 13 km. Nonetheless, this simple method of estimating position under ice is sufficient for regional studies such as this one. This study used 1964 quality-controlled CTD profiles that were located within the seasonal sea ice zone. Of the 1964 profiles, 1128 (57%) were collected under sea ice. Float salinity measurements were checked for conductivity

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Yuhong Zhang, Yan Du, W. N. D. S Jayarathna, Qiwei Sun, Ying Zhang, Fengchao Yao, and Ming Feng

1. Introduction Three typical high-salinity water masses have been reported in the Arabian Sea: the Arabian Sea high-salinity water (ASHSW), the Persian Gulf water (PGW), and the Red Sea water ( Morrison 1997 ; Rochford 1964 ; Stramma et al. 2002 ). The ASHSW forms in the northern part of the Arabian Sea and spreads southward as a salinity maximum within the upper 150 m ( Kumar and Prasad 1996 , 1999 ; Qasim 1982 ; Rochford 1964 ). The PGW forms in the Persian Gulf and exits to the Gulf of

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Pankajakshan Thadathil, Prasad Thoppil, R. R. Rao, P. M. Muraleedharan, Y. K. Somayajulu, V. V. Gopalakrishna, Raghu Murtugudde, G. V. Reddy, and C. Revichandran

. The halocline in the surface layer occurs when the surface salinity is reduced significantly, compared to the subsurface layer by processes such as excess precipitation over evaporation, river runoff, and redistribution of the low-salinity water by horizontal advection. These low-salinity water fluxes can act in concert, as in the Bay of Bengal ( Thadathil et al. 2007 ), or individually, as, for example, in the western Pacific, where high precipitation is accompanied by westerly wind bursts, the

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J. R. Toggweiler and B. Samuels

1950 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME25Effect of Sea Ice on the Salinity of Antarctic Bottom Waters J. R. TOGGWEILER AND B. SAMUELSGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NO/A, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 27 December 1993, in final form 6 December 1994)ABSTRACt Brine rejection during the formation of An~crctic sea ice is known to enhance the salinity of dense

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R. D. Muench, H. J. S. Fernando, and G. R. Stegen

FEBRUARY 1990 R.D. MUENCH, H. J. S. FERNANDO AND G. R. STEGEN 295Temperature and Salinity Staircases in the Northwestern Weddell Sea R. D. MUENCHScience Applications International Corporation, Bellevue, Washington H. J. S. FERNANDODept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona G. R. STEGENScience Applications International Corporation

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Stephen G. Monismith, Wim Kimmerer, Jon R. Burau, and Mark T. Stacey

1. Introduction As a part of attempts to manage and restore the San Francisco Estuary, environmental standards have been based on the positioning of the salt field in northern San Francisco Bay and the adjoining delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers (see Fig. 1 ). Following a suggestion by Williams and Hollibaugh (1989) , the measure of salinity intrusion proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Schubel et al. 1992 ), and eventually implemented, was X 2 —the distance

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