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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

. Alexander , D. P. Rowell , E. C. Kent , and A. Kaplan , 2003 : Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4407 , . 10.1029/2002JD002670 Reichle , R. H. , Q. Liu , R. D. Koster , C. S. Draper , S. P. Mahanama , and G. S. Partyka , 2017 : Land surface precipitation in MERRA-2 . J. Climate , 30 , 1643 – 1664 ,

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

. The PGW simulations perturb the horizontal wind, geopotential, temperature, specific humidity, sea surface temperature, soil temperature, sea level pressure, and sea ice. Large-scale spectral nudging was applied to these simulations above the planetary boundary layer on horizontal scales greater than 2000 km in order to minimize long-term climate drift ( Feser et al. 2011 ). Nudging also allows for specific synoptic weather events to be reproduced, but subsynoptic scales can freely evolve, thus

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Hanh Nguyen, Jason A. Otkin, Matthew C. Wheeler, Pandora Hope, Blair Trewin, and Christa Pudmenzky

-0149.1 Rayner , N. A. , D. E. Parker , E. B. Horton , C. K. Folland , L. V. Alexander , D. P. Rowell , E. C. Kent , and A. Kaplan , 2003 : Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4407 , . 10.1029/2002JD002670 Reisinger , A. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Australasia . Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B

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Ben S. Pickering, Steven Best, David Dufton, Maryna Lukach, Darren Lyth, and Ryan R. Neely III

daily life ( Kay 2016 ; Curtis et al. 2017 ). In the winter of 2009/10, the cost to the U.K. National Health Service from falls on snow and surface ice was £42 million ( Beynon et al. 2011 ). Mitigative actions such as clearing roads, covering exposed crops, and redirecting aircraft are cost associated and require sufficient lead time and confidence ( Cornford and Thornes 1996 ; Rasmussen et al. 2001 ; Handa et al. 2006 ; Clark et al. 2009 ). Real-time observations are often used by forecasters

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Wonbae Bang, GyuWon Lee, Alexander Ryzhkov, Terry Schuur, and Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim

1. Introduction Different climatology and regional differences of the atmospheric environment can significantly affect the microphysical characteristics of precipitation ( Bringi et al. 2003 ). When compared with Oklahoma (OKL), United States, the atmospheric environment of the southern Korean Peninsula (KOR) is characterized by abundant lower-level moisture caused by an ample supply of water vapor from the sea during the summer, which leads to deficient ice crystals at upper levels ( Sohn et

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Zhongkun Hong, Zhongying Han, Xueying Li, Di Long, Guoqiang Tang, and Jianhua Wang

-Interim near-surface air temperature, snowfall and precipitation over Arctic sea ice: Effects on sea ice thermodynamics and evolution . Cryosphere , 13 , 1661 – 1679 , . 10.5194/tc-13-1661-2019 Wang , G. , P. Zhang , L. Liang , and S. Zhang , 2017 : Evaluation of precipitation from CMORPH, GPCP-2, TRMM 3B43, GPCC, and ITPCAS with ground-based measurements in the QinlingDaba Mountains, China . PLOS ONE , 12 , e0185147,

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Graham A. Sexstone, Colin A. Penn, Glen E. Liston, Kelly E. Gleason, C. David Moeser, and David W. Clow

. Itkin , J. King , I. Merkouriadi , and J. Haapala , 2018 : A distributed snow-evolution model for sea-ice applications (SnowModel) . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 123 , 3786 – 3810 , . 10.1002/2017JC013706 López-Moreno , J. I. , S. R. Fassnacht , S. Beguería , and J. B. P. Latron , 2011 : Variability of snow depth at the plot scale: Implications for mean depth estimation and sampling strategies . Cryosphere , 5 , 617 – 629 , https

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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

warming over the TP in recent years (0.36°C decade −1 for the period of 1957–2007) ( Wang et al. 2008 ), most TP lakes have also undergone pronounced changes in terms of surface areas, water level/storage, and ice processes ( Huang et al. 2017 ; Phan et al. 2012 ; Song et al. 2013 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). For example, the average annual temperature for Serling Co (the second largest lake in the TP) increased at a rate of 0.49°C decade −1 for the period of 1979–2017, and local precipitation enhanced

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Erin Dougherty and Kristen L. Rasmussen

temperature, sea level pressure, and sea ice. This results in a future warming over the CONUS of approximately +3°–6°C and increase in water vapor mixing ratio of ~20%–40%, consistent with Clausius–Clapeyron theory. The Liu et al. (2017) simulations provide a useful framework for understanding how flood-producing storms might change in a future warmer climate over the CONUS. In the CTRL simulations, there is high fidelity in the depiction of precipitation characteristics, as Beck et al. (2019) found

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Xinxuan Zhang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Maria Frediani, Stavros Solomos, and George Kallos

and the Massif Central mountain range that exhibit frequent heavy precipitation and floods. A recent study ( Mehta and Yang 2008 ) about the Mediterranean basin indicates that heavy precipitation has peak frequency and accumulation over the mountainous regions according to satellite measurements. The areas along the Alpine foothills and the southern flanks of the Massif Central mountains are particularly under the influence of extreme rain accumulations because the air from the Mediterranean Sea

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