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Robert J. States and Chester S. Gardner

are first averaged into 1-h bins for each observation period. The vertical resolution of 960 m is retained. To produce the weekly mean day temperature structure, the data in each 1-h bin for each 24-h period are averaged using a Hamming window weighting function of 4 weeks full width at half maximum (FWHM) centered on a particular week. Smoothing the data over several weeks is sufficient to retain the seasonal and diurnal variations in temperature while eliminating or greatly reducing the effects

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Ning Zeng, J. David Neelin, and Chia Chou

, especially the simulated precipitation. The components of the seasonal water cycle including precipitation, evapotranspiration, interception loss, and surface and subsurface runoff appear reasonable compared to recent observational analyses. On interannual timescales, the Amazon hydrologic cycle exhibits a correlation with ENSO. The amplitude of interannual soil moisture variation is sensitive to model climatology due to nonlinear effects in soil moisture physics. Having originally derived the model

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V. Ramanathan and Robert E. Dickinson

radiation,- albedo, and the vertical distribution of temperature, clouds and 03. All of the above parameters are strong functions of latitude and season. Hence, it is clear that the seasonal and latitudinal effects should be considered in examining the climatic effects of ozone perturbations. To further this goal, the present paper focuses its' attention on one basic climatic parameter, namely the input of radiative energy into the troposphere. We discuss three cases of hypothetical ozone per

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Brian J. Hoskins and Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

328 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 44, No. 2Transient Eddies and the Seasonal Mean Rotational FlowBRIAN J. HOSKINS AND PRASHANT D. SARDESHMUKHDepartment of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom(Manuscript received 14 January 1986, in final form 30 July 1986) Virtually all investigations of transient-eddy effects on the large-scale mean vorticity start from the premisethat only the

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Peter H. Stone and Mao-Sung Yao

model aand comparing the results with a parallel 3-D simulation which calculated the eddy momentum transport aeexplicitly. The parameterization simulated the latitudinal and seasonal variations and the magnitude of the 0eddy momentum flux reasonably well, once the condensation effects were included. The main discrepancy 0ewas that the parameterization underestimated the eddymomentum transport by about 25%, which led to corresponding discrepancies in the 2-D simulation of the o~general circulation

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Chester W. Newton

. Contributions considered are frictional and mountain torques, atmosphericfluxes due to correlation of velocity components, seasonal changes of momentum, and minor effects such asmomentum carried by water mass fluxes. Large imbalances result (except in the northern winter) if calculated oceanic stresses are used to representthe total frictional torques. In the southern temperate belt, stresses based on a strong increase of dragcoefficient with wind speed are shown to produce torques around one-third too

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G. Louis Smith and David A. Rutan

is zero. The first PC describes the response of solar heating during the day as the surface and atmosphere heat up and radiate, then cool down at night. The four curves are extremely similar. One reason is that, for any season, PC(1) must describe the response of land in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Because seasons of the two hemispheres are 180° out of phase, seasonal effects will tend to cancel. The peak values are approximately 20 W m −2 and occur between 1100 and 1300 LST. The

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Y. Hayashi and D. G. Golder

-50-day period. If all three verticalheat distributions were bottom heavy, however, the 1020-, 25-30-, and 40=50-day periods would probablyshift to 25-30, 40-50, and 80-100 days, respectively.The shift of period from 25-30 to 40-50 days is consistent with the most unstable vertical mode of waveCISK theory.7. Effects of geographical and seasonal variations It was concluded in section 4 that the 40-50- and25-30-day spectral peaks result neither from the advective modification of intrinsic phase

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Joseph C. K. Huang

National Center for Atmospheric Research was used toinvestigate the effects of anomalous sea surface temperature ($$T) patterns in the mid-latitudes of theNorth Pacific Ocean on atmospheric circulations. One of the most frequently observed SST anomaly (SSTA)patterns, a "cold pool" o- water in the west and a "warm pool" in the east (from 35 to 55-N) with magnitudes :t:4-C of the temperature of the surrounding water, was iuperimposed on the seasonally varyingoceanic temperature as the thermal boundary

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Lenka Novak, Tapio Schneider, and Farid Ait-Chaalal

2008 ; O’Gorman and Schneider 2008a ), and it is also borne out in large-scale averages in simulations of the present climate and changed climates in comprehensive GCMs ( O’Gorman 2010 ; Lehmann et al. 2014 ). However, the seasonal cycle of the storm track over the North Pacific confounds this expectation. Over the North Pacific, the climatological baroclinic eddy activity (e.g., as measured by the kinetic energy of synoptic eddies) exhibits a minimum in midwinter, when baroclinicity exhibits a

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