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William R. Boos and Kerry A. Emanuel

1. Introduction Steady-state, axisymmetric solutions for the circulation in a differentially heated fluid on a rotating sphere have been advanced over the past few decades as a means of understanding the Hadley circulation (e.g., Schneider 1977 ; Held and Hou 1980 ). The associated theory emphasizes conservation of absolute angular momentum in the free troposphere, which results in a nonlinear dependence of circulation strength and extent on the imposed thermal forcing. Results of this theory

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Ka Ming W. Lau

atmosphere and the ocean is made using acoupled atmosphere-ocean model. The "domain-averaged" nature of the model enables the inclusion ofeffects due to continent-ocean-ice distribution in a quasi-two-dimensional framework. While the atmosphereis described by simplified "domain-average" primitive equations, the ocean is represented as simple advecrive mixed layer. Large-scale circulation and upwelling in the ocean are modeled in terms of a wind-drivenand a thermally driven component. Integration is

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Shang-Ping Xie

2602 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 51, No. 18The Maintenance of an Equatoria!ly Asymmetric State in a Hybrid Coupled GCM SHANG-PING XIEProgram i~ Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, ?rinceton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 9 August 1993, in final form 9 February 1994) ABSTRACT An ocean general circulation

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David L. T. Anderson and Julian P. McCreary

Anderson(1984) developed simple, coupled ocean-atmospheremodels of ENSO. The model ocean in these studiesis a linear, reduced-gravity model. The model atmosphere consists of various, externally specified, windpatterns. One of the patterns, rw, is chosen to resemblethe atmospheric Walker circulation, and responds tothe ocean as follows. When the pycnocline (thicknessof the ocean layer) in the eastern ocean is shallowerthan a critical depth, sea surface temperature (SST)is assumed to be cool, and the

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Fiona Eccles and Eli Tziperman

leads to ENSO's period is especially disconcerting given the failure of many state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) to reproduce the correct period of ENSO (e.g., Timmermann et al. 1999 ). Most likely the beginning of such an understanding could come from a relatively simple model that can be understood in some detail. The travel times of the first mode baroclinic equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves involved in the delayed oscillator ENSO mechanism ( Battisti 1988 ; Suarez and Schopf

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Fei-Fei Jin and David Neelin

particular, horizontal diffusion terms play little role for basin-scalemodes at finite coupling. The equatorial values of vertical-mean zonal current above the thermocline andthermocline depth perturbations are given by [ fo~ /sin2-xo/~/2u~ = -it~ \ sin2- ] O4e(T; xo)dxo(cos2-(x - 1))-1/2 sin2-(x - 1) -- fx' Ot~e( T; Xo)(COS2~(x - Xo))-t/2 sin2-(x - xo)dxo] [fo'Sin2-x-l'/2 f

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William R. Boos and Kerry A. Emanuel

1. Introduction The dynamical response to a zonally symmetric thermal forcing has been examined in a number of studies with the aim of understanding the dominant features of the earth’s tropical and subtropical tropospheric circulation. These studies have used models that are axisymmetric (e.g., Held and Hou 1980 ; Lindzen and Hou 1988 ) as well as models that resolve eddy transports of heat and momentum (e.g., Walker and Schneider 2006 ). Strong thermal forcings with maxima positioned

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Harry H. Hendon, Brant Liebmann, and John D. Glick

1. Introduction Eastward propagating Kelvin waves contribute prominently to the intraseasonal (i.e., periods shorter than a season) variability of the equatorial Pacific thermocline (e.g., Kessler et al. 1995, hereafter KMW ). These waves are also detectable in equatorial sea level ( Enfield 1987 ) and are traceable away from the equator as they propagate poleward along the western coast of the Americas ( Spillane et al. 1987 ). McPhaden and Taft (1988) , using subsurface data collected at

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Ping Chang and S. George Philander

that the seasonal temperature variations are confined to the surface mixed layer.The recent ocean general circulation model study byKoeberle and Philander (1994) and Chang's (1994)study with a very different model demonstrate that inthe Pacific cold tongue region the surface heat fluxplays an important part in the seasonal cycle of SST,more so than the vertical movements of the thermocline. These results imply that the strong annual cycleof the eastern equatorial Pacific is in part attributableto

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Fei Liu and Bin Wang

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), named after its discoverers ( Madden and Julian 1971 ), features an equatorially trapped, slowly eastward-propagating (about 5 m s −1 ), planetary-scale baroclinic circulation cell in the Eastern Hemisphere ( Knutson and Weickmann 1987 ; Wang and Rui 1990a ; Hendon and Salby 1994 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ). The MJO circulation comprises equatorial Kelvin waves and Rossby waves and exhibits a

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