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Scott Longmore, Steven Miller, Dan Bikos, Daniel Lindsey, Edward Szoke, Debra Molenar, Donald Hillger, Renate Brummer, and John Knaff

transportation could utilize the system for road conditions and damage. Federal agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency could benefit from PRs for forest fires, earthquake, possible pollution violations, etc. Centralized, categorized, and searchable PRs available through an interactive web portal, as in the one described above, could be helpful to private industry, such as insurance adjusters for damage claims and the media for news

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S. Allabakash, S. Lim, V. Chandrasekar, K. H. Min, J. Choi, and B. Jang

1. Introduction Winter storms produce high socioeconomic impact on human lives and property. The heavy snowfall occurring during a winter storm is a serious threat to transportation (especially aviation) and other related services. Snow growth processes affect the surface precipitation rate, which may have significant impact on the surface transportation ( Juga et al. 2012 ) and agricultural activities. Therefore, monitoring and nowcasting of winter storms are important to provide early

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Martha Shulski, Stonie Cooper, Glen Roebke, and Al Dutcher

1. Introduction A myriad of in situ environmental observing networks are currently in operation throughout the United States for a variety of purposes. Networks are available for applications in fire weather ( Zachariassen et al. 2003 ), climate ( Diamond et al. 2013 ; COOP), transportation ( Boselly et al. 1993 , 90–93; Manfredi et al. 2005 ), aviation ( Nadolski 1998 ), marine weather ( Conlee and Moersdorf 2005 ), hydrology ( Cifelli et al. 2005 ; Schaefer and Johnson 1992 ), and mesoscale

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Junhong Wang, Jerald Brotzge, Jacob Shultis, and Nathan Bain

1. Introduction Winter weather has a strong impact on the economy, infrastructure, and people’s daily lives. Among the most damaging and disruptive winter weather phenomena are ice storms. These intense freezing rain/freezing drizzle events lead to extremely hazardous conditions, which can last up to days or weeks, causing large amounts of damage to property and infrastructure over their duration ( Degelia et al. 2016 ). Utility, transportation, aviation, communication, and public safety can

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Wendy A. Ryan, Nolan J. Doesken, and Steven R. Fassnacht

1. Introduction Snowfall and snow depth measurements are important to a variety of disciplines including commerce, transportation, winter recreation, and water supply forecasting. The western United States depends on snowfall for 75% of their annual water supply ( Doesken and Judson 1997 ). For most of the United States outside of the high, mountainous regions of the West, the National Weather Service (NWS) is the primary source for snow measurements. Surface observations available from the NWS

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R. Krishfield, J. Toole, A. Proshutinsky, and M-L. Timmermans

deployment gear were minimized to facilitate handling and transportation. In total, the mass of the ITP hardware is approximately 500 kg, allowing transport to remote sites by a medium lift helicopter or Twin Otter aircraft (along with the deployment technicians, emergency survival gear, and deployment equipment). Several thousand CTD profiles have been returned from the ITPs deployed so far (see section 6 ), thus supporting the IBO concept as a practical means of making sustained observations of the

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L. C. Bender III, S. D. Howden, D. Dodd, and N. L. Guinasso Jr.

by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Using a moored slope-following discus buoy as a test platform, they found that the PPP-derived wave heights coincided very well with that of the accelerometer, but there were little specific details on whether the data were corrected for buoy tilt. The issue of whether a GPS wave buoy is cheaper than an accelerometer buoy remains to be seen, especially when the cost of system integration is considered. The advantage of a GPS system is that it is more widely

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Stuart Bradley, Erich Mursch-Radlgruber, and Sabine von Hünerbein

characterization. Extended Abstracts, 12th Conf. on Aviation Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Atlanta, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, P5.11 . Burnham, D. C. , 1997 : Ground-based wake vortex sensor technology: Current capabilities, future prospects. Proc. Int. Wake Vortex Meeting, TP 13166, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Transport Canada, 107–108 . Burnham, D. C. , and Hallock J. N. , 1982 : Chicago Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System . Vol. IV, Wake Vortex Decay, DOT Transportation Systems Center

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Z. Sheng, J. W. Li, Y. Jiang, S. D. Zhou, and W. L. Shi

1. Introduction The stratospheric wind is an important factor in gas, energy, and momentum transportations, which influences the atmospheric dynamics ( Baumgaertner 2007 ; Hildebrand et al. 2012 ; Shepherd 2007 ). It is also critical for the safety of rocket launches, falling points prediction of spacecraft recovery, and the design of stratospheric airships ( Schmidt et al. 2006 ; Polmar 2001 ). Studies on stratospheric winds are based on various measurements. The meteorological parameters

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Mark S. Veillette, Eric P. Hassey, Christopher J. Mattioli, Haig Iskenderian, and Patrick M. Lamey

1. Introduction Depictions of storm location and intensity obtained from weather radar are extremely important for public safety, transportation, agriculture, tourism, and several other areas. The United States is covered by a network of 159 Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Dopplers (WSR-88Ds or, more commonly, NEXRAD; 1 Crum and Alberty 1993 ), which are long-range S-band radars that provide frequent and detailed analyses of reflectivity (dB Z ), radial velocity, and a number of polarimetric

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