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R. Kwok

, between Svalbard and Fraz Josef Land (S–FJL) and between Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya (FJL–SZ), into the Barents Sea. Section 5 discusses the net sea ice outflow into the Greenland and Barents Seas and considers how the outflows are related to changes in the sea ice circulation pattern in the Arctic Ocean and indices of atmospheric oscillations. The last section concludes the paper. 2. Motion fields, flux estimates, and ancillary data To estimate the outflow of Arctic sea ice into the

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Josefino C. Comiso

since some wind patterns are favorable to the advection of multiyear or thick ice through Fram Strait and eventually to the Atlantic Ocean where they melt. Such events could cause significant interannual changes in the extent of the multiyear ice cover. It has been postulated by Thompson and Wallace (1998) that the atmospheric circulation pattern in the Arctic is controlled by the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The AO has been quantified through the use of AO indices, which are the differences in the

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Hai Lin

major circulation pattern in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere that is relevant to polar prediction is the northern annular mode (NAM) or the Arctic Oscillation (AO; e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ), which is characterized by an out-of-phase change in sea level pressure between the Arctic and the midlatitudes. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; e.g., Hurrell et al. 2003 ), an important mode of variability influencing the weather and climate in eastern North America and Europe, is a

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Steven B. Feldstein and Sukyoung Lee

and DeWeaver 2007 ; Lu et al. 2008 ; Kidston et al. 2011 ). This poleward shift of the eddy-driven jet also corresponds to a trend toward the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) teleconnection patterns 1 ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). Beginning in the early 1990s, after a 20-yr upward trend toward its largest positive value, the 5-yr running mean winter NAO/AO index began to decline, becoming negative at about 2010 ( http

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Shuntai Zhou and Alvin J. Miller

1. Introduction The extratropical weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are influenced by atmospheric circulations in both polar and tropical latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric circulations are often described by atmospheric modes. To the north the dominant mode is the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which has been extensively studied in recent years ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ; Baldwin and Dunkerton 1999 ; Hartmann et al. 2000 ). To the south the

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Michelle L. L’Heureux and R. Wayne Higgins

: Modulation of eastern North Pacific hurricanes by the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate , 13 , 1451 – 1460 . Matthews , A. J. , and M. P. Meredith , 2004 : Variability of Antarctic circumpolar transport and the Southern Annular Mode associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 . L24312, doi:10.1029/2004GL021666 . Miller , A. J. , S. Zhou , and S-K. Yang , 2003 : Relationship of the Arctic and Antarctic oscillations to outgoing longwave radiation. J

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Peter Hitchcock, Theodore G. Shepherd, and Gloria L. Manney

, 23 , 6438 – 6444 . Kuroda , Y. , and K. Kodera , 2001 : Variability of the polar night jet in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 ( D18 ), 20 703 – 20 713 . Kuroda , Y., and K. Kodera , 2004 : Role of the Polar-night Jet Oscillation on the formation of the Arctic Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11112, doi:10.1029/2003JD004123 . Liberato , M. L. R. , J. M. Castanheira , L. de la Torre , C. C

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Shangfeng Chen, Renguang Wu, Wen Chen, and Kai Li

Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO). AO is the leading mode of atmospheric interannual variability over extratropical Northern Hemisphere ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ). NAO is regarded as a regional manifestation of the AO over the North Atlantic region, characterizing by a meridional dipole anomaly pattern ( Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Thompson and Wallace 1998 ). Miyazaki and Yasunari (2008) indicated that the first EOF mode of SAT anomalies over Asia and surrounding oceans in boreal

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Judah Cohen, Jason C. Furtado, Justin Jones, Mathew Barlow, David Whittleston, and Dara Entekhabi

’s confidence in longer-term projections related to climate change. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominant mode of atmospheric winter climate variability in the extratropics ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2001 ). The AO is the first empirical orthogonal function of sea level pressure (SLP) poleward of 20°N and is a measure of the meridional vacillations in the polar jet stream that consequently governs temperatures and precipitation patterns in the extratropical NH. Therefore, successfully predicting

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

). Regarding such atmospheric forcing on different seasons, Ogi and Tachibana (2006) showed that an annual-mean atmospheric pattern defined as the January–December mean Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ) is significantly related to both the summer discharge of the Amur River and sea-ice extent in the Okhotsk Sea in the following winter. This study indicated that atmospheric patterns on the annual time scale could influence the season-to-season link of the atmosphere

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