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Kenneth R. Knapp and Larry L. Stowe

following comparisons are shown in Fig. 3 as crosses. 3. Aerosol retrieval from PATMOS data The retrieval of aerosol information from the PATMOS data over land requires the simulation of numerous atmospheric and surface interactions. This section describes how the surface and atmosphere are numerically modeled and the process of retrieving the AOD. a. Models The Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) model ( Stamnes et al. 1988 ) is used to simulate the interaction of solar radiation with the

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Edwin K. Schneider and Meizhu Fan

the procedure using reanalysis data, where the issues of (unknown) errors in the models and the data will have to be addressed. a. Models The coupled GCM is the anomaly coupled version of the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (COLA) CGCM described fully in Kirtman et al. (2002 and references therein). The AGCM (COLA version 2) uses a spectral sigma-coordinate dynamical core based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model version 3 (NCAR CCM3: Kiehl et al

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Isaac M. Held

cell strength. In the ice age scenario, cooler subtropics would likely also increase Δ T and, therefore, both S O and S A , which would further discourage an increase in the strength of the overturning. There are several ways in which this argument could break down and allow the tropical atmosphere and ocean energy transports to decouple. Changes in stresses on land could play a significant role, thereby decoupling the Ekman mass transports in the two media. The geostrophic component of the

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Jian-Hua Qian

sunny day. The free atmosphere over valleys or lowlands remains less affected by solar insolation and is thus cooler than the air over mountain slopes. The warmer and lighter air over mountain slopes rises, inducing upslope valley winds and a compensating subsidence in the valley core ( Rampanelli et al. 2004 ; Hughes et al. 2007 ; Prandtl 1952 ). At night, air over mountain slopes cools off faster than that over lowlands, resulting in downslope mountain winds. Land breezes (mountain winds) are

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J. David Neelin and Ning Zeng

adequately simulates primary features of the tropical climatology to illustrate the approach and because this version suggests insights into aspects of tropical atmospheric dynamics, especially with regard to atmosphere–land and atmosphere–ocean interactions. We also discuss examples of further simplifications of this QTCM to facilitate analysis of tropical dynamics. At the heart of QE convective closures is the assertion that convective ensembles at scales smaller than the Reynolds average (sub

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Wen-Yih Sun and Isidoro Orlanski

nonlinear equations are applied to study the interactions between the sea breeze circulation andtrapeze instability in low latitudes. The well-developed sea breeze circulation produced by the nonlinearmodel at coast is not so affected by the trapeze instability as shown in Part I of this study. However, thewaves over the land are quite similar to those of Part I, but with a smaller growth rate. This study suggeststhat a strong diurnal temperature variation over the land and/or the latent heat may be

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Benjamin A. Cash, Paul J. Kushner, and Geoffrey K. Vallis

fact two means of describing the same phenomenon. However, considering the NAO to be a regional manifestation of a hemispheric-scale pattern leads to a rather different view of Northern Hemisphere variability than does considering the NAO to be a leading mode in its own right. Specifically, the NAO paradigm suggests that zonally localized phenomena, such as variations in the Atlantic storm track or interaction with the stationary waves, are the most likely causes of the observed variability. In

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Theodore G. Shepherd

~166 3OURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES' Vor. 44, No. 8A Spectral View.of Nonlinear Fluxes and Stationary-Transient Interaction in the Atmosphere - THEODORE G. SHEPHERD*Center for Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Massachusetts Insaltute of Technology, Cambridge, M,4 02139 (Manuscript received 24 June 1986, in final form 3 November 1986)ABSTRACT Nonlinear

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Greg J. Holland and Mark Lander

) was attributed to rapid development ofthe subtropical ridge ahead of the poleward-movingstorm. Other potential mechanisms are episodic interactions with surrounding weather systems such as othertropical cyclones (Fujiwhara 1923 ), TUTT cells, midlatitude troughs (DeMaria 1987; Willoughby 1990),or with the land (Chang 1982). Internally generatedoscillations also may result from variations of the vertical structure of the storm. We are investigating thebinary cyclone interaction in a parallel

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Peter H. Stone

-scale instabilities The presence of adiabatic lapse rates in the loweratmosphere raises the possibility that small-scale convection may occur there, especially in low latitudeswhere the solar heating is a maximum. However,the Venera probes, which did land in low latitudes,were not able to detect any turbulence below 40 km(Kerzhanovich et al., 1972) and this suggests that convection does not in fact occur in the deep atmosphere.Such a conclusion is supported by the prediction that aHadley cell will produce a

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