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K. Y. Li, R. De Jong, M. T. Coe, and N. Ramankutty

permanent wilting point ( h pwp ); and 3) below the wilting point. The soil water content within the pressure head section between h fc and h pwp is usually regarded as the available water content, and hence the water stress reduction function for this section is most important. Employing the analogy of Ohm’s law for an electric current, Van den Honert (Van den Honert 1948) described the steady state of water flow as a catenary process through successive sections, expressed as where h, h root

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Jay Golden, W. C. Chuang, and W. L. Stefanov

was introduced by Kerschgens and Kraus ( Kerschgens and Kraus 1990 ) and refined by Taha ( Taha 1999 ) where the contribution of the canopy layer fluxes to an area at the bottom of the boundary layer is the weighted sum of the contribution of fluxes from individual surfaces. The need to increase the resolution of LULC information, both spatially and temporally, is vital to realize functionally reliable meteorological modeling ( Grossman-Clarke et al. 2005 ; Stefanov and Brazel 2007 ). Burley

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M. Sekhar, M. Shindekar, Sat K. Tomer, and P. Goswami

applicable sea surface temperature (SST) variations as boundary conditions in the GCM in order to address the uncertainties in the climate trends. Detailed reviews were made addressing the gaps ( Dragoni and Sukhija 2008 ; Earman and Dettinger 2011 ), but the climate change impacts on urban groundwater systems have not received the desired attention. Furthermore, there is yet limited information on addressing impacts from a combination of climate change and management scenarios ( Risbey et al. 2007

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J. Marshall Shepherd and Steven J. Burian

United States, the current urban growth rate, based on 1990 and 2000 census figures, is approximately 12.5%, with 80% currently living in urban areas. The U.S. population is not only growing but is tending to concentrate more in urban areas in coastal zones ( Culliton et al., 1990 ). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development for policy makers. Urban expansion and its associated urban heat

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

coupled to a land surface and urban modeling system that aimed to address emerging issues in urban areas ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Our experiment uses the Noah land surface model (LSM) to model the land surface ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), thereby providing surface energy fluxes and surface skin temperatures that serve as the boundary conditions for the atmospheric model. While the original version of Noah LSM has a bulk parameterization for urban land use, our experiment uses a single-layer UCM to

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Dev Niyogi, Elin M. Jacobs, Xing Liu, Anil Kumar, Larry Biehl, and P. Suresh C. Rao

stations, but coupling of hydrometeorological processes with crop models is becoming increasingly popular. For this, finescale hydrometeorological mapping that links the regional scale to the field scale is necessary ( Hollinger and Isard 1994 ; Ines et al. 2013 ). Such products are currently lacking. While several studies (e.g., Chaney et al. 2015 ; Livneh et al. 2013 ) have shown the importance of spatially and temporally continuous soil water and soil temperature data, observations are in many

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A. S. Alhumaima and S. M. Abdullaev

characterized by the presence of significant differences in the environmental conditions, can be improved by using the zonal landscape type as an additional predictor to the neural network input layer or by creating an individual forecasting model for each of the zonal landscapes delineated by its natural boundaries. In this study, we followed the landscape definitions of Nikolayev (2006) , where the geographical landscape can be seen as a geosystem homogeneous in origin and history of development and

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

propagation tends to increase westward across the Black Sea, which is consistent with linear theory. For comparisons with waves in the Black Sea, we investigate the westward propagation in the central North Pacific over the same latitude and time period ( Figure 1d ). Rossby waves are more easily identified in the central North Pacific since it is isolated from coastal or boundary current influences; in contrast, Rossby waves are difficult to distinguish in the Black Sea because of its smaller, enclosed

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Y. C. Sud, G. K. Walker, V. M. Mehta, and William K-M. Lau

influence of external boundary forcings on the development of weather and climate (seasonal means), hydrologic processes, and precipitation and its interannual variability (see, e.g., Houghton et al., 1996 ). We examine the influence of the annual cycle related changes in surface fluxes at the Earth's surface on the annual mode of climate using a state-of-the-art GCM. We will examine these influences by suppressing the solar and/or SST annual cycles in otherwise similar sets of environments. The key

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Jianjun Ge

al. 2007 ). Land surface changes also influence climate through the surface fluxes of radiation, heat, moisture, and momentum ( Foley et al. 2003 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). So far, however, our understanding and current climate models’ capability to represent the interactions between climate and biosphere are still limited. Future climate models may need to incorporate a full range of ecosystem dynamics caused by urbanization, agriculture, deforestation, and episodic disturbances such as fires

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