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Kshitij Parajuli, Scott B. Jones, David G. Tarboton, Lawrence E. Hipps, Lin Zhao, Morteza Sadeghi, Mark L. Rockhold, Alfonso Torres-Rua, and Gerald N. Flerchinger

results among different LSMs even when the models are driven by the same boundary forcing ( Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ; Koster et al. 2009 ; Zheng et al. 2017 ). LSM simulation of soil moisture is recognized as being subject to errors from multiple sources ( Song et al. 2014 ; Xue et al. 2013 ), but studies have suggested that development of methods for more detailed soil parameterization could improve the ability of LSMs to provide more accurate predictions ( Gayler et al. 2013 , 2014 ). Current LSMs

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

and drought ( van den Hurk et al. 2011 ; Koster et al. 2010 ), which includes immediate effects of the land on the temperature and humidity structure in the boundary layer, convective initiation, and mesoscale circulations ( Di Giuseppe et al. 2011 ). In addition, the influence of soil moisture on precipitation has been under community-wide investigation in a range of studies from local ( Santanello et al. 2011b ) to global ( Koster et al. 2004 ) scales. What is less understood is how specific

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Zeyu Xue and Paul Ullrich

data The North American Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (NA-CORDEX) dataset is produced using boundary conditions from global climate model simulations (CMIP5) to drive several regional climate models (RCMs) over North America. The simulations are from 1950 to 2100 with a spatial resolution of 0.22°/25 km or 0.44°/50 km ( Mearns et al. 2017 ; Giorgi et al. 2012 ). Here we use the raw CORDEX data, which does not include bias correction, to ascertain the added value from

Open access
Ben S. Pickering, Steven Best, David Dufton, Maryna Lukach, Darren Lyth, and Ryan R. Neely III

lack of a reference dataset, primarily due to the rarity of hail in the United Kingdom ( Punge and Kunz 2016 ; Webb et al. 2009 ). For example, the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD; Dotzek et al. 2009 ) contains only 32 hail reports in the United Kingdom during the 5-yr study period under examination. The hail class is therefore neglected in this study. The boundary between rain, mixed-phase, and snow (R–M–S) is important because the presence of mixed-phase precipitation typically indicates

Open access
M. H. J. van Huijgevoort, P. Hazenberg, H. A. J. van Lanen, A. J. Teuling, D. B. Clark, S. Folwell, S. N. Gosling, N. Hanasaki, J. Heinke, S. Koirala, T. Stacke, F. Voss, J. Sheffield, and R. Uijlenhoet

. 2004 ). In the current paper, we used a contour-tracing technique ( Chang et al. 2004 ; Wagenknecht 2007 ) to identify the outer boundaries of a given cluster. Next, cells belonging to the inner regions of a drought cluster are found by applying a connected component-labeling approach ( Suzuki et al. 2003 ; He et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2009 ). The combination of these two techniques results in a double-pass segmentation algorithm, which is generally assumed to be computationally efficient ( He et

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Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

conducting two simulations is mainly because 1) the coarser simulation provides important information on larger-scale synoptic flows, moisture transport, and regional-scale precipitation patterns that occurred from 2 to 5 August 2010 and 2) the very high-resolution simulation provides important information about the storm structure that passed over Leh. Fig . 2. Flowchart detailing the WRF-LIS coupling framework. The boundary and initial conditions for the large-scale atmospheric fields, soil parameters

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Lucas J. Sterzinger and Adele L. Igel

the environment of the current cell. This behavior is unrealistic and we would expect smooth transitions between or even mixtures of ice habits that reflect the history of the crystals in the real atmosphere. A possible side effect of this treatment is an instantaneous slowing or quickening of fall speed as crystals fall into grid boxes with different habit designations. Nonetheless, this approach does allow for spatial and temporal variation of ice habit in ways that many models do not allow at

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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

depleted soil moisture and led to drought onset in the central Great Plains. The dense springtime vegetation coverage makes the conditions more favorable for evapotranspiration ( Mo and Lettenmaier 2015 ), thus accelerating soil moisture reduction at the early stage of the drought events. Although the importance of vegetation has been recognized in those studies, current understanding of the active role of vegetation in flash drought is severely lacking, especially during the warm season when there is

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Xinxuan Zhang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Maria Frediani, Stavros Solomos, and George Kallos

current high-resolution (4 km, hourly; 8 km, hourly; and 25 km, 3 hourly) satellite rainfall products using rain gauge–adjusted (1 km, hourly) radar rainfall data over northeast Italy. They subsequently forced a distributed hydrologic model with both the original and adjusted satellite products and the reference radar rainfall to simulate a major flash flood over a 600-km 2 basin. They showed that neither satellite product could lead the hydrologic simulations to capture the magnitude of the flood

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James Cleverly, Chao Chen, Nicolas Boulain, Randol Villalobos-Vega, Ralph Faux, Nicole Grant, Qiang Yu, and Derek Eamus

base layer was zero or undefined (base short circuit), 2) when r aυ across the top layer was zero or undefined (top short circuit), or 3) when r aυ across both layers was defined (parallel circuit). Layer boundaries were set to z m , the effective canopy surface height ( z surface = z d + z 0 ), and the soil surface ( z soil ; Fig. 1 ). Measurement heights for the finite difference q a − q 0 were set, for example, to z m and z surface in the top layer. Fig . 1. Conditional three

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