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Ben S. Pickering, Steven Best, David Dufton, Maryna Lukach, Darren Lyth, and Ryan R. Neely III

lack of a reference dataset, primarily due to the rarity of hail in the United Kingdom ( Punge and Kunz 2016 ; Webb et al. 2009 ). For example, the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD; Dotzek et al. 2009 ) contains only 32 hail reports in the United Kingdom during the 5-yr study period under examination. The hail class is therefore neglected in this study. The boundary between rain, mixed-phase, and snow (R–M–S) is important because the presence of mixed-phase precipitation typically indicates

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Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

conducting two simulations is mainly because 1) the coarser simulation provides important information on larger-scale synoptic flows, moisture transport, and regional-scale precipitation patterns that occurred from 2 to 5 August 2010 and 2) the very high-resolution simulation provides important information about the storm structure that passed over Leh. Fig . 2. Flowchart detailing the WRF-LIS coupling framework. The boundary and initial conditions for the large-scale atmospheric fields, soil parameters

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Lucas J. Sterzinger and Adele L. Igel

the environment of the current cell. This behavior is unrealistic and we would expect smooth transitions between or even mixtures of ice habits that reflect the history of the crystals in the real atmosphere. A possible side effect of this treatment is an instantaneous slowing or quickening of fall speed as crystals fall into grid boxes with different habit designations. Nonetheless, this approach does allow for spatial and temporal variation of ice habit in ways that many models do not allow at

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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

depleted soil moisture and led to drought onset in the central Great Plains. The dense springtime vegetation coverage makes the conditions more favorable for evapotranspiration ( Mo and Lettenmaier 2015 ), thus accelerating soil moisture reduction at the early stage of the drought events. Although the importance of vegetation has been recognized in those studies, current understanding of the active role of vegetation in flash drought is severely lacking, especially during the warm season when there is

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Xinxuan Zhang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Maria Frediani, Stavros Solomos, and George Kallos

current high-resolution (4 km, hourly; 8 km, hourly; and 25 km, 3 hourly) satellite rainfall products using rain gauge–adjusted (1 km, hourly) radar rainfall data over northeast Italy. They subsequently forced a distributed hydrologic model with both the original and adjusted satellite products and the reference radar rainfall to simulate a major flash flood over a 600-km 2 basin. They showed that neither satellite product could lead the hydrologic simulations to capture the magnitude of the flood

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James Cleverly, Chao Chen, Nicolas Boulain, Randol Villalobos-Vega, Ralph Faux, Nicole Grant, Qiang Yu, and Derek Eamus

base layer was zero or undefined (base short circuit), 2) when r aυ across the top layer was zero or undefined (top short circuit), or 3) when r aυ across both layers was defined (parallel circuit). Layer boundaries were set to z m , the effective canopy surface height ( z surface = z d + z 0 ), and the soil surface ( z soil ; Fig. 1 ). Measurement heights for the finite difference q a − q 0 were set, for example, to z m and z surface in the top layer. Fig . 1. Conditional three

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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

precipitation extremes in urban environments ( Han et al. 2014 ). There is an ongoing debate on the impact of urban environment on precipitation variations at a local scale. Most observational and modeling research showed that urban environments play a positive role in affecting precipitation variety by enhancing moisture convergence, destabilizing the planetary boundary layer, and favoring vertical updrafts ( Huff and Changnon 1973 ; Mote et al. 2007 ; Shepherd et al. 2010 ; Wang et al. 2015 ). Warmer

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Ji-Qin Zhong, Bing Lu, Wei Wang, Cheng-Cheng Huang, and Yang Yang

forecasts are important for economic development and people’s daily life, so to find out the causes of such forecasting bias is of great urgency. A number of studies have investigated the reasons for the poor performance of near-surface temperature and humidity forecasts in NWP. Numerous hypotheses concerning the sources of these near-surface temperature forecast biases have been proposed, including inadequate horizontal or vertical resolution, inaccurate initialization and parameterization of boundary

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Mengye Chen, Zhi Li, Shang Gao, Xiangyu Luo, Oliver E. J. Wing, Xinyi Shen, Jonathan J. Gourley, Randall L. Kolar, and Yang Hong

increase ( van Oldenborgh et al. 2018 ) and the propagation of the cyclones will likely decrease due to the possible impact from climate change ( Kossin 2018 ). It is thus likely that the future flood risk and its consequential socioeconomic damage will escalate. On top of the changes in the tropical cyclone characteristics, rising sea level in a warming climate can intensify coastal flooding ( Wing et al. 2019 ). There is a clear need for tools that can facilitate the current and future flood risk

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Xuejian Cao, Youcun Qi, and Guangheng Ni

). Currently, enormous studies focus on the blockage effects of buildings, where the existence of buildings alters the initial overland flow paths determined by gravity’s direction. To estimate the blockage effects of buildings, various methods in the past are adopted, such as increasing the roughness in localized areas to represent buildings ( Connell et al. 2001 ; Vojinovic et al. 2011 ), blocking 2D elements or removing them from the simulation grid ( Chen et al. 2008 ; Russo et al. 2012 ; Zoran 2009

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