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Robert J. Meyer, Michael Horowitz, Daniel S. Wilks, and Kenneth A. Horowitz

triggers automatic exercise and settlement of the applicable options. The premiums collected from HuRLO purchases are aggregated into a mutualized risk pool (MRP) for the applicable HuRLO series, to be allocated among holders of the HuRLOs for the coastal county or region where a hurricane makes first landfall, or holders of No Landfall HuRLOs if no next hurricane makes landfall in the current calendar year. The settlement is in proportion to the number of options for the correct event that are held by

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Samuel Tang and Suraje Dessai

encouraging knowledge producers to consider the social, physical, institutional, and political context of decision makers ( Dilling 2007a ; McNie 2007 ; Sarewitz and Pielke 2007 ). Effective decision support emerges when the information decision makers need is identified and aligned alongside with what is feasible for science to deliver ( NRC 2009 ). Furthermore, the creation of “boundary organizations” and “boundary objects” helps improve the usability of science by linking science and policy across

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Andrea K. Gerlak, Zack Guido, Catherine Vaughan, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Diana Liverman, Adrian R. Trotman, Roché Mahon, Shelly-Ann Cox, Simon J. Mason, Katharine L. Jacobs, James L. Buizer, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, and Walter E. Baethgen

; WMO 2008 ). Currently, RCOFs are routinely convened in 19 regions around the world, serve mainly developing and least-developed countries, and are coordinated in part by the WMO ( WMO 2016 ). 2 The experience of RCOFs presents a learning opportunity that can inform the nascent and widespread efforts in climate services. Two previous evaluations of the RCOFs conducted by the WMO concluded that RCOFs lacked user orientation, failed to understand and document the socioeconomic benefits of the

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Tonya Haigh, Lois Wright Morton, Maria Carmen Lemos, Cody Knutson, Linda Stalker Prokopy, Yun Jia Lo, and Jim Angel

agricultural decisions, yet the actual adoption of climate information by farmers has been relatively limited ( Zebiak and Cane 1987 ; Harrison 2005 ; Goddard et al. 2010 ; H. Meinke et al. 2008, personal communication; Lemos et al. 2012 ). Use of climate information is hindered by its high level of uncertainty, technical difficulty, and lack of clear application to on-farm decisions ( Hollinger 1991 ; Lemos and Rood 2010 ; Mase and Prokopy 2014 ). Research has shown that boundary organizations and

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D. H. Cobon, R. Darbyshire, J. Crean, S. Kodur, M. Simpson, and C. Jarvis

in November. The greatest annual accumulated gross margin (AGM) found was $28,490 per 100 ha, which was for a strategy that did not use SOI forecast information but adjusted stocking rates in May based on current available pasture. The strategy that used the SOI forecast recorded a lower AGM [$26,595 (100 ha) −1 yr −1 ] than the strategies that did not use a forecast to inform decisions. Using another approach, Stafford Smith et al. (2000) used simulation modeling to consider the impact of

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Zack Guido, Dawn Hill, Michael Crimmins, and Daniel Ferguson

in white where not classified with drought on 30 Nov 2010 and 26 Apr 2011. Figure is modified from NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center. The Tracker was a two-page document focused on Arizona and New Mexico and published in portable document format (PDF) and hypertext markup language (HTML) format ( ). It contained five sections: a 350-word summary of current drought conditions, an explanation of snowpack conditions, an explanation of the

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Debbie Hopkins

participants. The boundaries between scientific and nonscientific types of knowledge are distinctly blurred ( Ryghaug et al. 2011 ). There is a continuum of scientific knowledge; participants of this study had differing levels of scientific training, with some participants having received university-level science education. These participants were more likely to refer to scientific methods and express trust in scientific knowledge production, especially compared to individuals with little scientific

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Ryan P. Crompton, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, Roger A. Pielke Jr., and Katharine Haynes

In our article ( Crompton et al. 2010 ) we normalized bushfire building damage to current societal conditions by multiplying historical loss records by the factor change in total dwelling numbers from when the event occurred to 2008/09. The dwelling number factor was calculated at the state level and we tested the validity of this resolution using two historic case studies: the 1967 Hobart and 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires. No trend in building damage was found after normalization. Nicholls

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

. To that end, this research utilizes a combination of approaches (historical analogs, current probabilities, and future projections) to delineate the areal extent of exposure to climate-sensitive hazards in the study area. The goal is to develop a generalized spatial understanding of where the impacts are the greatest and who bears the consequences of those impacts. The use of historical proxy data provides a reasonable indicator of the areal exposure and impacts from climate-sensitive hazards at

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Valerie Githinji and Todd A. Crane

1. Introduction Across Africa, climate change and variability pose additional stresses to smallholder farmers who already have challenging livelihoods. Widespread and gendered poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, HIV/AIDS, and agricultural transition and decline wrought by an increase in pathogens affecting people, plants, and animals; decreasing soil fertility; and diminishing farming land are among the chief challenges currently affecting the Bahaya ( Githinji 2008 , 2009a , b , 2011a

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