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Malcolm E. Scully, Alexander W. Fisher, Steven E. Suttles, Lawrence P. Sanford, and William C. Boicourt

are aligned with the direction of wave propagation ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). The Craik–Leibovich (CL) vortex force has been incorporated into large-eddy simulations (LES), which have simulated coherent wind-aligned vortices that are largely consistent with field observations of LC ( Skyllingstad and Denbo 1995 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ; Noh et al. 2004 ; Polton and Belcher 2007 ). Most observational studies have been conducted in deep water, where bottom boundary layer turbulence has no

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Andre W. Visser

clouded.2. Lagrangian view of the problem The coordinate transformation, which "linearizes"the equations of motions, is well known. This is theLagrangian reference frame that moves with a fluidelement as it is advected through space by prevailingcurrents. Specifically, the momentum equations for thecase under consideration may be written asdu*dt - fv' + gnx' = 0 (9) --+fu'= 0, (10) dtwhere ' means "as perceived by a moving fluid

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Yang Yu, Shu-Hua Chen, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xinyu Guo, Jie Shi, Guangliang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yi Xu, and Huiwang Gao

1. Introduction Because of the diurnal forcing of solar insolation, atmospheric states within the boundary layer, such as the land–sea breeze, feature a strong diurnal cycle. The influence of diurnal forcing also extends to the ocean, affecting the upper-ocean temperature ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ). The daytime warming generates a “thermodynamic diurnal stratified layer” ( Fairall et al. 1996a ) and increases the sea surface temperature (SST). The nocturnal mixing deepens the mixed layer ( Bernie

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H. W. Wijesekera, D. W. Wang, E. Jarosz, W. J. Teague, W. S. Pegau, and J. N. Moum

months. Observations showed generation of wind- and buoyancy-driven and remotely forced currents ( Jarosz et al. 2017 ), intense surface wave breaking, and generation of bubble clouds, along with high-frequency currents over the northern Alaskan shelf ( Wang et al. 2016 ). These high-frequency motions are likely driven by a combination of different dynamical processes that include convection, shear-driven turbulence, and Langmuir circulation cells generated by the interaction of surface wave effects

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Antrony C. Hirst and Stefan Hastenrath

; Hastenrath and Heller, 1977; Barnett, 1977; Covey andHastenrath, 1978; Lamb, 1978a,b) and that the oceanmay respond to a remote forcing by the atmosphere(Wyrtki, 1975; Hurlburt et al., 1976; McCreary, 1976;Adamec and O'Brien, 1978; Moore et al., 1978; Servain et al., 1982). Mechanisms of atmospheric forcingand hydrospheric response analogous to the PacificEl Niiio phenomenon have been suggested for theAtlantic (Hisard, 1980; Merle, 1980; Merle et al.,1980). Stretching as it does along the eastern

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Fan Wang, Yuanlong Li, and Jianing Wang

existing literature ( Taft and Kessler 1991 ; Delcroix et al. 1992 ; Qiu and Joyce 1992 ; Reverdin et al. 1994 ; Sprintall and McPhaden 1994 ; Donguy and Meyers 1996 ; Johnston and Merrifield 2000 ; Chen and Qiu 2004 ; Shinoda et al. 2011 ; Qiu and Chen 2012 ; Hsin and Qiu 2012a , b ; Zhao et al. 2013 ). Low-frequency variations of the zonal currents are mainly induced by wind stress forcing associated with the influential climate modes of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Variabilities of the

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Weiqing Han, Julian P. McCreary, Yukio Masumoto, Jérôme Vialard, and Benét Duncan

-wavelength Rossby waves and that satisfy no-normal-flow boundary conditions at both eastern and western boundaries. The condition for resonance is where T is the forcing period, L is the equatorial basin width, c n is Kelvin wave speed of the n th baroclinic mode ( n = 1, 2, …), and m = 1, 2, … is a positive integer. When (1) is satisfied and the model is inviscid, the solution becomes infinite at the locations, and m ′ = 0, 1, 2, … is an integer (see Cane and Moore 1981 ; Cane and Sarachik 1981

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J. Carter Ohlmann and David A. Siegel

longwave radiation at the sea surface, relative humidity, wind speed, air (solid line), and ocean (dotted line) temperature. Fig. 9. Time series of upper ocean chlorophyll concentration and cloud index used to force the solar transmission parameterization presented here. Chlorophyll concentration was measured aboard the R/V John Vickers during TOGA COARE. Twice daily measurements are shown. Cloud index comes from normalizing incident irradiance values recorded at the IMET mooring during TOGA COARE by

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Tore Hattermann

physical processes that maintain temperature gradients of several centigrade over less than 100-km horizontal distance across the front involve various processes that are not well captured by large-scale and climate simulations, such as waves and hydrographic anomalies along the shelf break ( Graham et al. 2013 ; Chavanne et al. 2010 ), local atmospheric forcing on stratification and circulation on the shelf ( Petty et al. 2013 ; Darelius et al. 2016 ), or interaction with local bathymetry ( St

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John R. Moisan and Pearn P. Niiler

NODC archives to obtain temperature data and the COADS to obtain the climate observations. There are other sources of data available to use in calculating the NHF and HSR. This study only focused on the COADS and NODC data. Results from this study can now be used in several areas of oceanography. The correct seasonal NHF can be used to force mixed layer models. The new cloud parameterization can be used to estimate the solar irradiance. And, because most of the regions on the North Pacific were

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