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Lars Arneborg and Bengt Liljebladh

at days 21 and 34 and velocities and isotherms at M1w, velocities at M2w, and isotherms at M3w. The general picture is that of relatively warm water at 50–20 m in the beginning of the period overlaid by cold brackish water of Baltic origin. Around day 32 a cold body of water below the pycnocline is advected into the fjord, causing a local temperature minimum at 30–40 m. During the period there is a strong pycnocline at 5–20 m dividing the cold brackish Baltic water from the warmer more saline

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L. Håvard Slørdal and Jan E. Weber

computational time so that tides and storm surge events alsocan be simulated. This is accomplished by use of a timesplitting procedure whereby the volume transport andvertical velocity shear are solved separately. The vertical mixing processes are calculated by applying ananalytical turbulence closure model of small-scale turbulence (Mellor and Yamada 1982; Galperin et al.1988). A terrain-following sigma (a) coordinate system is incorporated in the model. This makes the number of grid points in the vertical

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Weiqing Han and Peter J. Webster

influence of radiation and atmospheric fields (not shown) suggest that SLAs caused by the heat fluxes result from variabilities of atmospheric fields, and the effect of solar shortwave radiation and outgoing longwave radiation is negligible. While a strong northeast (southwest) monsoon tends to increase coastal downwelling (upwelling) so as to increase (decrease) h 1 and therefore raise (decrease) sea level [ Eq. (1) ; section 4c ], it brings more cold and dry (warm and humid) air into the bay

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Kevin G. Speer and Michael S. McCartney

underneath another at rest is used. In the firstpart of the discussion of the model, the upwelling isspecified. In the second part, the fundamental drivingis the source strength of bottom water, rather than aspecified upwelling. In principle, the source can bemeasured and perhaps even related to air-sea fluxesand mixing, while the upwelling is difficult to observeand furthermore ought to be calculated as part of thecirculation problem. This is not really done here, sincethe upwelling is assumed to be

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Y. Noh and H. J. S. Fernando

, freshwater influx from riverplumes can generate salinity fronts or salt wedges(Garvine and Monk 1974; Simpson and James 1986;McClimans 1988). Fronts also appear at the boundarybetween the well-mixed layer above the continentalshelf and stratified waters away from the boundaries(Simpson et al. 1978). Formation of sea-breeze frontsis another example of front formation. As the cold airfrom the marine atmosphere undercuts the warm airmass over the land a sharp front, which can propagateas a gravity current

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Toshiaki Shinoda, Paul E. Roundy, and George N. Kiladis

or a change to a dominance of a higher baroclinic mode could also be factors altering the wave as it evolves. RK06 also found evidence for coupling between convection and SST that tended to systematically slow Kelvin wave phase speeds during the development of El Niño. Another possibility is that the waves are altered by wind stress along its path of propagation. Such forced Kelvin waves have been studied in the context of storm surges associated with Kelvin waves trapped along coastlines (see

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James Hlywiak and David S. Nolan

(2009) define 60 km and 200 km as estimates of the inner core and the outer core containing the cold wake, and changes in air–sea fluxes within both radii may significantly impact the TC. Time series of ensemble mean SST changes averaged within 60 (solid lines) and 200 (dashed lines) km of the storm center are shown in Figs. 8 and 9 . Note that the above ensemble mean values are axisymmetric, and do not account for storm asymmetries. Additionally, variations in the ocean responses between

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Astrid Pacini, Robert S. Pickart, Isabela A. Le Bras, Fiammetta Straneo, N. Penny Holliday, and Michael A. Spall

1. Introduction The boundary current system encircling the Labrador Sea plays a pivotal role in the warm-to-cold water mass transformation that occurs in the sea, which contributes to the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In the interior of the basin, newly ventilated Labrador Sea Water is formed through deep convection (e.g., Clarke and Gascard 1983 ; The Lab Sea Group 1998 ; Pickart et al. 2002 ). This weakly stratified water mass helps to maintain the hydrographic

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Kai Håkon Christensen, Ann Kristin Sperrevik, and Göran Broström

freshwater from the Baltic Sea and the Norwegian rivers into the Arctic and hence plays an important role in the Arctic freshwater budget. Along most of the Norwegian coast, the cold and fresh NCC is wedged between the warm and saline Norwegian Atlantic Current and the coast, and mixing between the Atlantic and coastal waters gradually reduce the contrast between the two water masses as they flow northward. Typical current speeds in the NCC are about 0.25 m s −1 but occasionally exceed 1 m s −1 (Aure

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Mary L. Batteen, Martin J. Rutherford, and Eric J. Bayler

toward the equator, cold upwelled water at thesurface, shallow (<30-m depth) thermoclines, and highbiological production (Parrish et al. 1983). These currents are part of the subtropical anticyclonic gyres,which are driven primarily by the anticyclonic windfields, and variations in current strength can be highlycoherent with variations in local wind stress (Allen1980; Huyer 1990). Along the eastern ocean boundary offWestem Australia, the prevailing winds are also predominantlyequatorward

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