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Matthew Berman and Jennifer I. Schmidt

associated with protecting, reinforcing, and relocating infrastructure, $50–$100 million per year represents a reasonable projection of costs to protect infrastructure threatened by erosion and move communities to safer ground. 3) Space heating Reduced space heating demand represents an important positive effect of climate warming. Data from the 2012 Alaska Energy Authority energy end-use study ( WHPacific 2012 ) show that Alaskans annually use about 50 million MMBtu to heat residential homes and 18

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K. Fagiewicz, P. Churski, T. Herodowicz, P. Kaczmarek, P. Lupa, J. Morawska-Jancelewicz, and A. Mizgajski

floods; e.g., Jawgiel 2017 ); thermal conditions—higher frequency of heat waves and the impact of urban heat island in Poznań (e.g., Majkowska et al. 2017 ); air quality—threats exceeding the permissible concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and their harmful effects on the health of the residents; and spatial planning—supporting investments in nature protection and green infrastructure to increase regulatory ecosystem services (e.g., Zwierzchowska et al. 2019 ). Climate change increases the

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Gabrielle Roesch-McNally, Michael Chang, Meghan Dalton, Scott Lowe, Charlie Luce, Christine May, Gary Morishima, Philip Mote, Alexander “Sascha” Petersen, and Emily York

instance, emergency department and urgent care clinic data can be monitored in real time and studied retroactively after a climate-related event (such as to detect increases in heat-related stroke or asthma attacks triggered by poor air quality), but this is only a part of the picture. There is a need to better understand other less acute health effects that do not rise to the level of emergency department room visits (such as mental health impacts of prolonged smoke or drought conditions

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Kirsten Lackstrom, Nathan P. Kettle, Benjamin Haywood, and Kirstin Dow

of the risk of heat exhaustion. Decisions related to staffing, monitoring, and planning prescribed burning in state parks and national forests also affect tourism-related activities and require a range of wind, precipitation, temperature, and drought information. Long-term decisions center on land-use planning and future development. This group indicated a higher level of engagement with climate change issues and demonstrated concerns about the potential impacts of ecosystem alterations

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Andrea K. Gerlak, Zack Guido, Catherine Vaughan, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Diana Liverman, Adrian R. Trotman, Roché Mahon, Shelly-Ann Cox, Simon J. Mason, Katharine L. Jacobs, James L. Buizer, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, and Walter E. Baethgen

dissemination? The Caribbean comprises numerous small islands, many of which experience similar climate and weather risks. Nevertheless, each has its own climate vulnerabilities as a result of unique social and geophysical conditions ( Farrell et al. 2010 ). Building a robust network at a regional scale therefore requires engaging people from different countries and across and within many sectors. It also requires promoting information exchange beyond the actual CariCOF. Building such a network presents a

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

from the 2010 Census data are no longer comparable. However, extending the trend line out to future years does provide a reasonable basis to drawn general conclusions about likely future county level social vulnerabilities for the study area. d. Spatial measures of hazard exposure Climate-sensitive hazards, especially those related to water (or the lack of water) are among the most costly threats that face the United States. In fact, tropical storms/hurricanes, heat waves/drought, and flooding top

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P. Zion Klos, John T. Abatzoglou, Alycia Bean, Jarod Blades, Melissa A. Clark, Megan Dodd, Troy E. Hall, Amanda Haruch, Philip E. Higuera, Joseph D. Holbrook, Vincent S. Jansen, Kerry Kemp, Amber Lankford, Timothy E. Link, Troy Magney, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Liza Mitchell, Brandon Moore, Penelope Morgan, Beth A. Newingham, Ryan J. Niemeyer, Ben Soderquist, Alexis A. Suazo, Kerri T. Vierling, Von Walden, and Chelsea Walsh

stream temperature may be of concern, a general warming trend is of much less perceived importance to end users than issues of water limitation within our case example. However, in other regions (e.g., desert cities with urban heat islands), results of such analysis might reveal temperature increase as being of high perceived importance. Indicators high in both perceived importance and biophysical complexity (fire and productivity related) are likely of higher perceived importance to people because

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Tony Huiquan Zhang

comfort and weather comfort measurements. Experts agree the following variables contribute to an overall comfort level: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity, water vapor pressure in ambient air, the individual’s heat production, and his/her clothing adaptation ( Fanger 1970 ; Nicol and Humphreys 2002 ; Parsons 2014 ). Also, precipitation, types of weather (especially extreme weather conditions), and specific microsettings such as buildings, streets, and crowds (of special relevance to

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Chen Zhang, Hua Liao, Fang-Zhi Wang, and Ru Li

dummy variable of the restaurants to absorb the effect of restaurant-varied food style preference on the expenditures. The endogenous problems are explained as follows. First, our measure of temperature exposure is likely to suffer from measurement errors. These arise from the fact that weather stations are distributed far away from the campus. Because of the heat island effect, the temperature might be higher than that measured in the weather station. To this end, we conduct several alternative

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Emma Austin, Anthony S. Kiem, Jane Rich, David Perkins, and Brian Kelly

Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences Rep., 28 pp. , . Adeyeri , O. E. , A. A. Akinsanola , and K. A. Ishola , 2017 : Investigating surface urban heat island characteristics over Abuja, Nigeria: Relationship between land surface temperature and multiple vegetation indices . Remote Sens. Appl.: Soc. Environ. , 7 , 57 – 68 , . Albrecht , G

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