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Matthew Berman and Jennifer I. Schmidt

associated with protecting, reinforcing, and relocating infrastructure, $50–$100 million per year represents a reasonable projection of costs to protect infrastructure threatened by erosion and move communities to safer ground. 3) Space heating Reduced space heating demand represents an important positive effect of climate warming. Data from the 2012 Alaska Energy Authority energy end-use study ( WHPacific 2012 ) show that Alaskans annually use about 50 million MMBtu to heat residential homes and 18

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K. Fagiewicz, P. Churski, T. Herodowicz, P. Kaczmarek, P. Lupa, J. Morawska-Jancelewicz, and A. Mizgajski

floods; e.g., Jawgiel 2017 ); thermal conditions—higher frequency of heat waves and the impact of urban heat island in Poznań (e.g., Majkowska et al. 2017 ); air quality—threats exceeding the permissible concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and their harmful effects on the health of the residents; and spatial planning—supporting investments in nature protection and green infrastructure to increase regulatory ecosystem services (e.g., Zwierzchowska et al. 2019 ). Climate change increases the

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Andrea K. Gerlak, Zack Guido, Catherine Vaughan, Valerie Rountree, Christina Greene, Diana Liverman, Adrian R. Trotman, Roché Mahon, Shelly-Ann Cox, Simon J. Mason, Katharine L. Jacobs, James L. Buizer, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck, and Walter E. Baethgen

dissemination? The Caribbean comprises numerous small islands, many of which experience similar climate and weather risks. Nevertheless, each has its own climate vulnerabilities as a result of unique social and geophysical conditions ( Farrell et al. 2010 ). Building a robust network at a regional scale therefore requires engaging people from different countries and across and within many sectors. It also requires promoting information exchange beyond the actual CariCOF. Building such a network presents a

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Kirsten Lackstrom, Nathan P. Kettle, Benjamin Haywood, and Kirstin Dow

of the risk of heat exhaustion. Decisions related to staffing, monitoring, and planning prescribed burning in state parks and national forests also affect tourism-related activities and require a range of wind, precipitation, temperature, and drought information. Long-term decisions center on land-use planning and future development. This group indicated a higher level of engagement with climate change issues and demonstrated concerns about the potential impacts of ecosystem alterations

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

from the 2010 Census data are no longer comparable. However, extending the trend line out to future years does provide a reasonable basis to drawn general conclusions about likely future county level social vulnerabilities for the study area. d. Spatial measures of hazard exposure Climate-sensitive hazards, especially those related to water (or the lack of water) are among the most costly threats that face the United States. In fact, tropical storms/hurricanes, heat waves/drought, and flooding top

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P. Zion Klos, John T. Abatzoglou, Alycia Bean, Jarod Blades, Melissa A. Clark, Megan Dodd, Troy E. Hall, Amanda Haruch, Philip E. Higuera, Joseph D. Holbrook, Vincent S. Jansen, Kerry Kemp, Amber Lankford, Timothy E. Link, Troy Magney, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Liza Mitchell, Brandon Moore, Penelope Morgan, Beth A. Newingham, Ryan J. Niemeyer, Ben Soderquist, Alexis A. Suazo, Kerri T. Vierling, Von Walden, and Chelsea Walsh

stream temperature may be of concern, a general warming trend is of much less perceived importance to end users than issues of water limitation within our case example. However, in other regions (e.g., desert cities with urban heat islands), results of such analysis might reveal temperature increase as being of high perceived importance. Indicators high in both perceived importance and biophysical complexity (fire and productivity related) are likely of higher perceived importance to people because

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Tony Huiquan Zhang

comfort and weather comfort measurements. Experts agree the following variables contribute to an overall comfort level: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity, water vapor pressure in ambient air, the individual’s heat production, and his/her clothing adaptation ( Fanger 1970 ; Nicol and Humphreys 2002 ; Parsons 2014 ). Also, precipitation, types of weather (especially extreme weather conditions), and specific microsettings such as buildings, streets, and crowds (of special relevance to

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Daniel Tobin, Rama Radhakrishna, Allison Chatrchyan, and Shorna B. Allred

, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Vermont) and the District of Columbia. The Northeast Climate Hub sought out these land-grant universities as institutions with expertise in conducting research, designing programs based on research findings, and delivering those programs to target audiences. This current study is part of a larger regional needs assessment on behalf of the Northeast Climate Hub. Agriculture in the northeastern United States is

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Ross N. Hoffman, Peter Dailey, Susanna Hopsch, Rui M. Ponte, Katherine Quinn, Emma M. Hill, and Brian Zachry

atmospheric winds and in the heat and freshwater fluxes at the ocean surface and from rivers. Therefore, correlations might be expected between the seasonal cycle of sea level and the seasonal cycle of storms. Here we assume that the seasonal cycle is not changing in time. High-frequency processes. A number of processes affect sea level on submonthly time scales. These include synoptic weather and the short period tides. Storm surge associated with tropical and extratropical cyclones has clear and

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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Phillip B. Chilson, and Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

environmental benefits as well as possible beneficiaries of atmospheric profiles from a 3D mesonet that might soon be integrated into the operational data streams of surface mesonets across the United States. Other aspects of economics related solely to technological sustainability of WxUAS are not addressed here. 2. History of UAS use in meteorology for profiling The National Weather Service radiosonde network consists of 92 observation locations across North America and the Pacific Islands that take twice

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