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Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Aristides Bartzokas, Themistoklis Chronis, Dimitris Georgopoulos, and George Ferentinos

specific humidity, we use satellite observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager platform and implement the Bentamy model ( Bentamy et al. 2003 ). In addition, we use 3-h cloud cover observations from coastal and island stations in the Aegean Sea. The combination of the above datasets, after making use of appropriate bulk formulas, results in the monthly-mean values of the four heat flux components, shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat, at each buoy location. Because

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Pengfei Xue and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

source of water supply for most of the population in the surrounding cities and countries. The surface water temperature in the Gulf has also exhibited a significant increase in the recent two decades ( Shirvani et al. 2014 ). Concerns are rising about sustainability of these trends into the future, while climate change and its impacts complicate this situation even further ( Hamza and Munawar 2009 ; Sale et al. 2011 ). Because of the limited observational data, previous estimates of heat and water

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Chein-Jung Shiu, Shaw Chen Liu, and Jen-Ping Chen

reduction in daytime temperature. In addition, the increase in clouds or cloud albedo can increase nighttime surface temperature by trapping longwave radiation (e.g., Hansen et al. 1995 ). Thus, the net effect of increasing cloudiness or cloud albedo is a decrease in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Decreases in DTR have been observed worldwide, but the exact cause of the DTR trends is not well understood. Changes in cloudiness, aerosol scattering, urbanization (urban heat island), and atmospheric

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Tangdong Qu, Yoo Yin Kim, Max Yaremchuk, Tomoki Tozuka, Akio Ishida, and Toshio Yamagata

from 0.5 to 10 Sv (e.g., Wyrtki 1961 ; Metzger and Hurlburt 1996 ; Qu 2000 ; Lebedev and Yaremchuk 2000 ; Chu and Li 2000 ; Qu et al. 2000 ; Yaremchuk and Qu 2004 ). With a set of numerical experiments, Metzger and Hurlburt (1996) noted that LST is particularly sensitive to the model geometry. Qu et al. (2000) applied Godfrey's (1989) “island rule” to the Philippines and interpreted LST as a result of counterbalance between the basin-scale forcing of the Pacific and the friction

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Zhenxia Long and Will Perrie

Opening. Fig . 4. (a) Water volume transport (Sv) through the BSO, (b) heat transport (TW) through the BSO (black) and its 9-yr smoothing results (red), (c) average ocean temperature (°C) along the BSO (black) and its 9-yr smoothing results (green) and observed water temperature (50–200 m) at the Fugløya–Bear Island section (red), and (d) average water temperature (°C) above 200 m at the Kola section for CIOM simulation (red) and observations (black). The heat entering the southern Barents Sea is

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Teresa J. Parker, Gareth J. Berry, and Michael J. Reeder

. The smallest decrease in daily maximum temperature of 0.5°C was seen at Gabo Island from 31 January to 1 February 2009. Table 2. Number of Victorian stations per heat wave for DJF 1989–2009. Table 3. Temperatures in Melbourne during DJF heat waves from 1989 to 2009 (°C). The 90th percentile (90th perc) maximum (max) and minimum (min) daily temperatures (temp) for this station for each month are also shown. 4. Composite of heat waves in Victoria in summer Composites from the ERA-Interim dataset

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H. Annamalai, J. Hafner, A. Kumar, and H. Wang

local and remote climate features. Here, we evaluate seasonal prediction skill of precipitation anomalies over the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI; Fig. 1 ) in the hindcasts performed with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2). We also assess the model’s representation of physical processes in affecting regional precipitation anomalies. Fig . 1. Map of the Pacific islands. Six regions are considered in the present study: Guam

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Jennifer Miletta Adams, Nicholas A. Bond, and James E. Overland

discussed in the Arctic literature. Previous studies on similar topics generally present January climatologies or November–March averages (e.g., Lau 1979 ; Higuchi et al. 1991 ), and discussions of the seasonal cycle are often reduced to a comparison of summer and winter conditions (e.g., Michaud and Derome 1991 ; Mock et al. 1998 ). Our next step is to examine the spatial and temporal variability of the dominant components of the Arctic heat budget during the fall cooling period. In particular, we

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Donghyuck Yoon, Dong-Hyun Cha, Myong-In Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Sang-Yoon Jun, and Yonghan Choi

(green contour lines in Fig. 5 ); this could have caused a heat wave over the Korean Peninsula by blowing warm low-level southerly winds along the WNPSH ( Lee and Lee 2016 ; Yoon et al. 2018 ; Xu et al. 2019 ). In addition, a strong positive anomaly existed between the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands during 2018A. Various studies have suggested that this zonally extended pattern of the geopotential height from the Korean Peninsula to the Aleutian Islands is as a typical feature of

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Jinlun Zhang

describing the thickness of certain ice categories, f is the vertical ice growth rate due to the net surface heat flux, ψ is the redistribution function due to ridging, and F L is the source term for ice melting from the ocean heat flux. The ocean heat flux used to melt ice F L consists of the upward ocean heat transport provided to the surface ocean layer by the deeper layers F LO and the portion of the surface heat flux that enters the surface ocean layer through leads and through the

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