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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Jeffrey B. Basara

varies both seasonally and regionally. The companion manuscript to this paper ( Erlingis et al. 2019 , hereafter Part I ) introduced the study domain, the flash flood database used, and the regions of interest. Kinematic trajectories were produced for 19 253 flood events and presented as they relate to the regional and seasonal mechanisms for producing heavy rainfall and flash flooding in the United States. In this manuscript, the moisture budget along the trajectories is analyzed along with the

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James Montesi, Kelly Elder, R. A. Schmidt, and Robert E. Davis

transfer to a snow particle by radiation is represented by Q = πr 2 (1 − ζ ) S o , (3) where S o is total incident radiation flux, and ζ is particle albedo. The Nusselt number is defined as Nu = 1.79 + 0.606(Re 0.5 ) (4) for (0 < Re < 10), where Re is the Reynolds number that is written as where V is the ventilation speed, and υ is the kinematic viscosity of air. Water vapor diffusivity in still air ( D ), kinematic viscosity of air ( υ

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Yingying Chen, Kun Yang, Degang Zhou, Jun Qin, and Xiaofeng Guo

surface with bluff roughness elements, and a higher z 0 m usually corresponds to a lower z 0 h . Following this reasoning, Yang et al. (2002) correlated z 0 h to a physical height ( h T ), which is related to a height to separate the fully turbulent layer and the transitional layer. The height h T is determined by the critical Reynolds number (Re crit ): where Re crit = 70 in this study, ν is the fluid kinematic viscosity, and u * is the friction velocity. For a surface with

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Bradford S. Barrett, Dominique Bastine Krieger, and Caroline P. Barlow

. Chiu, L. , Liu Z. , Rui H. , and Teng W. , 2006 : TRMM data and access tools . Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing, J. Qu et al., Eds., Vol. 2, Data, Computational Processing, and Tools, Springer and Tsinghua University Press, 202–219 . Cox, J. A. W. , Steenburgh W. J. , Kingsmill D. E. , Shafer J. C. , Colle B. A. , Bousquet O. , Smull B. F. , and Cai H. , 2005 : The kinematic structure of a Wasatch Mountain winter storm during IPEX IOP3 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133

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Philip Marsh and John R. Gyakum

was developed for Environment Canada's operational radars in the southern Mackenzie basin, while the IPIX radar was used to provide datasets on the detailed kinematic description (e.g., vertical structure, wind fields) of the cloud systems in the central MRB. Numerical weather prediction: Gridded model data from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) operational forecast model for the CAGES period were archived ( MacKay et al. 2003 ). This archive included higher-resolution (10 km

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Shuzhou Wang and Yaoming Ma

parameterization scheme in this study. Table 1. Flux parameterization schemes for kB −1 . The Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, k = 0.4, ν is the fluid kinematical viscosity, α = 0.52, β = 7.2, and Re * = z 0m u * / ν . b. Determination of excess resistance to heat transfer The excess resistance to heat transfer kB −1 is used to parameterize the sensible heat exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. In past decades, the parameterization of kB −1 has attracted a number of theoretical and

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Paul J. Neiman, F. Martin Ralph, Benjamin J. Moore, and Robert J. Zamora

between SBJs, ARs, and the precipitation they generated across the northern CV and Sierra foothills. Neiman et al. (2013a) utilized a wind profiler at Sloughhouse, California (SHS; Fig. 1 , Table 1 ), as the primary observational anchor to identify the strongest SBJ events over the northern CV during a multiyear period to investigate mean kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the composite SBJ and simultaneously occurring AR and to ascertain the composite orographic precipitation

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F. Martin Ralph, Paul J. Neiman, David E. Kingsmill, P. Ola G. Persson, Allen B. White, Eric T. Strem, Edmund D. Andrews, and Ronald C. Antweiler

. All of the stream gauges in the Santa Cruz Mountains have 45–50 yr of records dating back to between 1950 and 1955. Many other operational observing systems were also used: hourly surface observations from airports and buoys, 3-hourly data from ships (sites shown in Fig. 3 ), 12-hourly thermodynamic and kinematic profiles from rawinsondes, and the WSR-88D at Mount Umunhum (MUX) near San Francisco monitored the evolution of landfalling precipitation features and their associated radial

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Riccardo Rigon, Giacomo Bertoldi, and Thomas M. Over

models ( Beven 2000 ) have been implemented to predict the lateral distribution of water, ranging from more conceptualized descriptions (e.g., Beven and Kirkby 1979 ; Franchini and Pacciani 1991 ) to fully distributed approaches, such as the Système Hydrologique Européen (SHE; Abbott et al. 1986 ), topographic kinematic approximation and integration model (TOPKAPI; Ciarapica and Todini 2002 ), THALES ( Grayson et al. 1992 ), and others ( Vertessy et al. 1993 ; Garrote and Bras 1995 ; Bronstert

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Barbara Turato, Oreste Reale, and Franco Siccardi

peaks occur at the end of October), but they could be concurring agents of a complex synergistic mechanism. 3. Moisture sources for the Piedmont 2000 flood event a. Method To investigate surface evaporative sources contributing to the flood event, we adopt a kinematic quasi-isentropic trajectory technique documented in Dirmeyer and Brubacker (1999) ; used by Reale et al. (2001) , Brubacker et al. (2001) , and Burde and Zangvil (2001a , b ); and based on the fully implicit isentropic algorithm of

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