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Suneil Iyer, Kyla Drushka, and Luc Rainville

variability of turbulence on scales of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. Wind, wave breaking, buoyancy forcing, wave-turbulence interactions, and Langmuir circulation drive turbulence in the upper tens of centimeters of the ocean ( Lombardo and Gregg 1989 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Soloviev and Lukas 2003 ; Huang and Qiao 2010 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Thomson 2012 ; Esters et al. 2018 ; Zippel et al. 2018 ). In this depth range, ε depends on wind stress and significant wave height, with higher

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B. J. W. Greenan and N. S. Oakey

begins to sink. When this happens circulation begins around the main wing and lift is produced. As the vehicle starts to glide away from the ship, cable is paid out using a specialized winch–capstan handling system. The deck operator uses the capstan to feed out the cable so that the tether line remains loose. At the end of a run the cable is removed from the capstan and the winch is used to pull the glider back to the ship using a sheave block in the stern A-frame. When the glider returns to the

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Walt McKeown and Richard Leighton

interface. A weak wind (<0.1 m s −1 ) was applied to draw away the evaporated water and to induce a slight circulation, which minimized thermoclines. The difference of each image’s ADU values gave DADU variation with time. Combined with heat flux from the thermistors Q ( t ), this allows calculation of the Q (DADU) relationship. After covering a range of several degrees kelvin and several hundred W m −2 , the water was rewarmed to the midpoint of the temperature range and a simple paddle

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Jerome A. Smith

waves: Range and resolution. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 6 , 680 – 696 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1989)006<0680:DSASWR>2.0.CO;2 Smith, J. A. , 1998 : Evolution of Langmuir circulation during a storm. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 12649 – 12668 . 10.1029/97JC03611 Smith, J. A. , 1999 : Observations of wind, waves, and the mixed layer: The scaling of surface motion. The Wind-Driven Air–Sea Interface, M. L. Banner, Ed., University of New South Wales, 231–238 . Smith, J. A. , 2002 : The use of

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David Farmer, Li Ding, Donald Booth, and Martin Lohmann

of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 25 , 1426 – 1440 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Farmer, D. M. , Vagle S. , and Booth A. D. , 1998 : A free-flooding acoustical resonator for measurement of bubble size distributions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol , 15 , 1132 – 1146 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1132:AFFARF>2.0.CO;2 Gemmrich, J. R. , and Farmer D. M. , 1999 : Near surface turbulence and thermal structure in a wind-driven sea

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Eric Lamarre and W. K. Melville

associated with breaking waves. Nature, 356, 694-696. Wood, A. B., 1941: A Textbook of Sound. G. Bell &amp; Sons, 578 pp. Woolf, D. K., and S. A. Thorpe, 1991: Bubbles and the air-sea ex change of gases in near-saturation conditions. J. Mar. Res., 49, 435-466. Zedel, L., and D. Farmer, 1991: Organized structures in subsurface bubble clouds: Langmuir circulation in the open ocean. J. Geo phys. Res., 96, 8889-8900.

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David M. Farmer, Svein Vagle, and A. Donald Booth

-enhanced turbulence near the ocean surface. In the example shown here ( Fig. 16 ) the radius of the dominant bubble size increased from 80 to nearly 200 μ m in a few tens of seconds. As discussed by Thorpe (1982) , bubble size distributions depend in a subtle way on the supply from breaking waves, the turbulence and currents in the active near-surface zone, the dissolution of the primary gas constituents, and the advective effects of deeper coherent motions such as Langmuir circulation. Our results suggest the

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R. Pinkel and J. A. Smith

environmental conditions. Since 1988 we have implemented coded transmissions in a number of field programs, including surfacewave experiments SWAPP and NOBS, arctic experiments CEAREX and pre-LEADS, and the many intervening test trips. Surface waves, Langmuir circulation, internal waves, and other upper-ocean phenomena have been measured. We find the codes to improveperformance reliably, even in the face of severe environmental distortion. As repeat sequence codes, orequivalents, become more widely used

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J. P. Boyle

be maintained in the conductive sublayer for reasonable time periods. It is believed the relatively long flux-plate recovery time is due to reestablishment of the conductive sublayer around the flux plates/fiberglass mesh after its disruption. During several legs with wind speeds greater than approximately 4 m s −1 , foam generated by breaking waves and concentrated in windrows by Langmuir circulation frequently covered the flux plates and submergence sensor. Figure 5 shows typical effects of

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Angelique C. Haza, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Annalisa Griffa, Andrew C. Poje, and M.-Pascale Lelong

in section 5 . 2. Trajectory datasets a. Submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model HYCOM ° simulation is centered on the Gulf Stream and nested within a larger-scale ° North Atlantic simulation ( Fig. 1 ). The simulation is performed subject to atmospheric forcing based on monthly values from the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis, superimposed with 6-hourly anomalies from perpetual-year wind stress and wind speed data from the Navy

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