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David M. Farmer
,
Svein Vagle
, and
A. Donald Booth

-enhanced turbulence near the ocean surface. In the example shown here ( Fig. 16 ) the radius of the dominant bubble size increased from 80 to nearly 200 μ m in a few tens of seconds. As discussed by Thorpe (1982) , bubble size distributions depend in a subtle way on the supply from breaking waves, the turbulence and currents in the active near-surface zone, the dissolution of the primary gas constituents, and the advective effects of deeper coherent motions such as Langmuir circulation. Our results suggest the

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Walt McKeown
and
Richard Leighton

interface. A weak wind (<0.1 m s −1 ) was applied to draw away the evaporated water and to induce a slight circulation, which minimized thermoclines. The difference of each image’s ADU values gave DADU variation with time. Combined with heat flux from the thermistors Q ( t ), this allows calculation of the Q (DADU) relationship. After covering a range of several degrees kelvin and several hundred W m −2 , the water was rewarmed to the midpoint of the temperature range and a simple paddle

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Eric Lamarre
and
W. K. Melville

associated with breaking waves. Nature, 356, 694-696. Wood, A. B., 1941: A Textbook of Sound. G. Bell &amp; Sons, 578 pp. Woolf, D. K., and S. A. Thorpe, 1991: Bubbles and the air-sea ex change of gases in near-saturation conditions. J. Mar. Res., 49, 435-466. Zedel, L., and D. Farmer, 1991: Organized structures in subsurface bubble clouds: Langmuir circulation in the open ocean. J. Geo phys. Res., 96, 8889-8900.

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B. J. W. Greenan
and
N. S. Oakey

begins to sink. When this happens circulation begins around the main wing and lift is produced. As the vehicle starts to glide away from the ship, cable is paid out using a specialized winch–capstan handling system. The deck operator uses the capstan to feed out the cable so that the tether line remains loose. At the end of a run the cable is removed from the capstan and the winch is used to pull the glider back to the ship using a sheave block in the stern A-frame. When the glider returns to the

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David Farmer
,
Li Ding
,
Donald Booth
, and
Martin Lohmann

of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 25 , 1426 – 1440 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Farmer, D. M. , Vagle S. , and Booth A. D. , 1998 : A free-flooding acoustical resonator for measurement of bubble size distributions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol , 15 , 1132 – 1146 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<1132:AFFARF>2.0.CO;2 Gemmrich, J. R. , and Farmer D. M. , 1999 : Near surface turbulence and thermal structure in a wind-driven sea

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Angelique C. Haza
,
Tamay M. Özgökmen
,
Annalisa Griffa
,
Andrew C. Poje
, and
M.-Pascale Lelong

in section 5 . 2. Trajectory datasets a. Submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model HYCOM ° simulation is centered on the Gulf Stream and nested within a larger-scale ° North Atlantic simulation ( Fig. 1 ). The simulation is performed subject to atmospheric forcing based on monthly values from the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis, superimposed with 6-hourly anomalies from perpetual-year wind stress and wind speed data from the Navy

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