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Matthieu Le Hénaff, Pierre De Mey, Baptiste Mourre, and Pierre-Yves Le Traon

( Andersen 1999 ). The value of 3.9 cm for nadir sea level observation error is considered realistic in our study where tides are not present: it is very close to values of the error budget found for new processed data from current altimeters of the coastal zone in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea where tides are of very low amplitude ( Bouffard 2007 ). Note that nadir altimeters are almost insensitive to platform roll: the radar footprint on the ground would just be translated by a few meters, hardly

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Bartolomé Garau, Simón Ruiz, Weifeng G. Zhang, Ananda Pascual, Emma Heslop, John Kerfoot, and Joaquín Tintoré

) profiles in the western Mediterranean, including the sampling in very energetic areas, such as the Alboran Sea with strong horizontal and vertical density gradients. With the increasing use of these new autonomous platforms equipped with CTD sensors, among others, new issues arise related to the processing and quality control of the data. The hydrographic variables of temperature and salinity are used by most of the oceanographers, and only temperature is observed with a specific sensor. Salinity is

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Alberto Alvarez

with randomly generated individuals. The operator is employed to substitute, after a certain number of generations, the individuals of the population by random perturbations of the strongest individual. 3. Case study: The Adriatic Sea a. Description of the surface oceanographic conditions of the Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea is a basin forming the extreme northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 2 ). The Adriatic Sea is an almost land-locked elongated basin (some 800 km by 200 km). It

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Xiangzhou Song

, X. , and L. Yu , 2013 : How much net surface heat flux should go into the western Pacific warm pool? J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 118 , 3569 – 3585 , . 10.1002/jgrc.20246 Song , X. , and L. Yu , 2017 : Air-sea heat flux climatologies in the Mediterranean Sea: Surface energy balance and its consistency with ocean heat storage . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 122 , 4068 – 4087 , . 10.1002/2016JC012254 Song , X

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Paula Camus, Antonio S. Cofiño, Fernando J. Mendez, and Raul Medina

parameters to define each sea state has also increased considerably. Apart from long-term hourly time series of H s , T m , and θ m , the ocean reanalysis databases provide other parameters such as wind velocity W 10 , wind direction β W , storm surge S s , swell significant wave height H s 2 , and even the directional spectra. However, the description of wave climate combining the different parameters available is still reduced to two-dimensional histograms of just two variables. Several

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A. Alvarez and B. Mourre

remotely sensed SST. A field experiment (REP10) was carried out by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Undersea Research Centre (NURC) in the western Mediterranean Sea in 2010 to investigate the performance of a fleet of gliders supported by remote sensing data to characterize a marine coastal area. The objective of the present study is to exploit the glider, satellite, and in situ validation dataset collected during REP10 experiment to compare the two above-mentioned merging procedures

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Walter Zenk, Andreas Pinck, Sylvia Becker, and Pierre Tillier

release float. We call a cluster of moored dual release floats a “float park.” A park can sequentially release temporarily moored floats from the sea floor. Because of the compressibility difference between water and the glass housing of floats, they are buoyant while on the seafloor far below their intermediate mission levels. After their initial release has been triggered following a predetermined delay, they ascend to their intended mission depth where they act as Lagrangian current meters like

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Luis A. Gil-Alana, Manuel Monge, and María Fátima Romero Rojo

than land temperatures and several authors have studied recently the SST locally, in different areas, for instance, in the Mediterranean Sea ( Shaltout and Omstedt 2014 ), Baltic Sea ( Stramska and Białogrodzka 2015 ), and southwest coast of Portugal ( Goela et al. 2016 ), pointing at a general increasing of the local temperature, hence contributing to global warming ( Mudelsee 2019 ). Interestingly, Breaker (2019) has recently estimated long-range persistence in the ocean surface temperature of

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Richard D. Ray and Chester J. Koblinsky

sea surface topography, gravity, and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of Seasat altimeter data. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 13 129-13 150.Mazzega, P., and S. Houry, 1989: An experiment to invert Seasat altimetry for the Mediterranean and Black Sea mean surfaces. Geophys. J., 96, 259-272.Melville, W. K., J. A. Kong, R. H. Stewart, W. C. Keller, A. T. Jessup, D. Arnold and A. Slinn, 1989: The measurement and modeling of sea-state bias in SAXON. Prec. IGARSS'89, July 12

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Raquel Niclòs, Vicente Caselles, César Coll, Enric Valor, and Eva Rubio

; Schluessel et al. 1990 ; Smith et al. 1996 ; Wick et al. 1996 ; Wu and Smith 1997 ; Donlon et al. 1998 ) or aircrafts ( Saunders 1967 ; Hagan et al. 1997 ). Some authors have used drifting platforms, such as the Floating Instrument Platform ( FLIP ) used in the California bight by Jessup and Hesany (1996) . In this paper, SST determination is carried out using in situ thermal infrared data measured from an oilrig in the Mediterranean Sea using a CIMEL Electronique CE 312 1 radiometer mounted on an

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