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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Piero Malguzzi

region in northern Italy, presents characteristics typical of the Mediterranean area, being a narrow strip of land separating the Alps and Apennines from the sea. The steep and complex orography reaches high elevations (around 2000 m) within a few kilometers of the coast, and a number of small catchments (only a few are larger than 200 km 2 ), characterized by a response time of a few hours at most, have their outlets in the Mediterranean Sea. Because of the topography, most of the urban areas are

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A. Amengual, D. S. Carrió, G. Ravazzani, and V. Homar

Confederación Hidrográfica del Júcar (CHJ) demarcation ( Figs. 1 , 2 ). CHJ administers an extension of 42 851 km 2 over east-central Spain and comprises most of the Spanish central rivers that flow into the Mediterranean Sea, with Júcar being the most important. The Serpis River basin has an extension of 802.6 km 2 and a length of 74.5 km at the basin outlet in the city of Gandia. The catchment extends from the northeasternmost part of the Baetic system, then flows northeasterly through a set of narrow

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

. 2002 ; Liu and Stewart 2003 ; Seneviratne et al. 2004 ). Therefore, and also based on the validation presented in Part I , we conclude that our E − P tracking is based on a solid methodology of diagnosing E − P . 4. E − P tracking—The technique and some examples In this section, we will present two examples. We will track the moisture from the Mediterranean Sea forward to see in which regions water from originally Mediterranean air masses is lost. And we will track the air masses

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Guy Delrieu, John Nicol, Eddy Yates, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Jean-Dominique Creutin, Sandrine Anquetin, Charles Obled, Georges-Marie Saulnier, Véronique Ducrocq, Eric Gaume, Olivier Payrastre, Hervé Andrieu, Pierre-Alain Ayral, Christophe Bouvier, Luc Neppel, Marc Livet, Michel Lang, Jacques Parent du-Châtelet, Andrea Walpersdorf, and Wolfram Wobrock

1994 ) listed 144 rain events having generated daily precipitation amounts greater than 190 mm during the 1958–94 period in southern France. The factors conducive to such heavy precipitation events are the following: (i) the Mediterranean Sea acts as a reservoir of energy and moisture for the lower layers of the atmosphere, especially at the end of summer and beginning of fall, when the sea is still warm; (ii) at the synoptic scale, upper-level cold troughs generally extending from the United

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J. P. Evans

for parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Being a dominantly arid area, relatively little evaporation occurs over the land compared to the surrounding water bodies: the Black Sea to the northwest, the Caspian Sea to the northeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and the Persian Gulf to the south. Although it has been generally accepted that the area is dominated by storm systems moving in from the Mediterranean Sea, earlier modeling work ( Evans et al. 2004 ; Evans and Smith 2006 ) indicated that

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Francesco Di Paola, Elisabetta Ricciardelli, Domenico Cimini, Filomena Romano, Mariassunta Viggiano, and Vincenzo Cuomo

. Analysis of 21 February 2013 case study over Sicily On 20 February 2013 a large depression developed over northern Africa, with a warm advection from the Sahara to the Mediterranean region, culminating in extraordinarily intense rainfall in the following days. These severe storms moved northeast across the Ionian Sea and hit southern Italy first, on the afternoon of 21 February, and then subsequently hit Greece the following morning, producing floods and causing extensive damages. Figure 1 (top left

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Yongjie Huang and Xiaopeng Cui

occur in southern Sweden, and regional moisture may also play a key role. Drumond et al. (2011a) found that the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are important moisture sources for the southern and central regions of China by using a Lagrangian approach. As for the Sichuan basin with its very complex terrain, what the most important moisture sources and transport paths are for the torrential rainfall events within the basin is still a big question to be solved, one that is crucial to the research

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

2003 ) showing a second P maximum north of 50°N, which was actually caused by orographic effects. There was also indeed strong precipitation west of the Caspian Sea on 10 and 11 August, which is missing in the GPCP data and only hinted at in the ECMWF forecasts. Figure 9 shows E from ECMWF forecasts and the Lagrangian method. In the forecasts, the evaporation patterns are relatively simple: There are two maxima over the western Mediterranean and over the Caspian Sea, very low values over

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H. K. Cigizoglu, M. Bayazit, and B. Önöz

both individual stations and geographical regions in Turkey during the 1930–92 period. They found that climate tended to be warmer in the eastern Anatolia and to be cooler particularly in the Marmara and Mediterranean regions using regional mean temperature series. Türkeş (1996) worked with the area-averaged annual rainfall series during the 1930–93 period and pointed out that decreases were generally observed over Turkey, particularly in the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions. The application

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Ricardo García-Herrera, Emiliano Hernández, David Barriopedro, Daniel Paredes, Ricardo M. Trigo, Isabel Franco Trigo, and Manuel A. Mendes

Europe. Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1571 – 1592 . 10.1002/joc.846 Lloyd-Hughes, B. , and Saunders M. A. , 2002b : Seasonal prediction of European spring precipitation from El Niño–Southern Oscillation and local sea-surface temperatures. Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1 – 14 . 10.1002/joc.723 Maheras, P. , Xoplaki E. , and Kutiel H. , 1999 : Wet and dry monthly anomalies across the Mediterranean basin, and their relationship with circulation, 1860–1990. Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 64 , 189

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