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Rolf H. Langland

1. Introduction From mid-October to mid-December 2003, a major targeted observing field campaign was conducted over the North Atlantic region, including portions of eastern North America, Greenland, and Europe. The set of special observations resulting from this North Atlantic Observing-System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX 1 ; http://www.wmo.int/thorpex ) Regional Campaign (NA-TReC) includes dropsondes, radiosondes, land and ship-surface data, commercial aircraft data, and

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James S. Goerss

), Australian bogus, and synthetic TC observations. The satellite observations assimilated in these experiments consisted of feature-track winds from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) total column precipitable water (PW) and wind speeds, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) radiances, and Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 ( ERS-2 ) 1 scatterometer winds. In Fig. 1a , the TC track forecast errors for the 2005

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Jason A. Otkin
,
Daniel C. Hartung
,
David D. Turner
,
Ralph A. Petersen
,
Wayne F. Feltz
, and
Erik Janzon

periods with little manual intervention. Profile observations were created to emulate the Doppler wind lidar (DWL), microwave radiometer (MWR), and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) sensors. Observations were also created to emulate the state-of-the-art Raman lidar (RAM) system run operationally at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north-central Oklahoma ( Goldsmith et al. 1998 ; Turner et al. 2000 , 2002 ); however, this sensor is currently

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Gabriel Susca-Lopata
,
Jonathan Zawislak
,
Edward J. Zipser
, and
Robert F. Rogers

situ datasets are used here. However, the present study expands upon previous studies by also utilizing passive microwave satellite data. The inclusion of passive microwave observations allows for a documentation of the coverage of both intense convection and at-least moderate rainfall before, during, and immediately after RI at a temporal resolution of ≤6 h. With this comprehensive collection of observations and objective analyses, the present study will further examine the relationship between

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Daniel J. Cecil
and
Edward J. Zipser

1. Introduction Understanding, estimating, and predicting such parameters as rainfall, vertical motion, and latent heating in precipitation systems requires some understanding of the microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. Hurricanes provide an excellent environment for studying precipitation processes ( Marks et al. 1998 ), as the precipitation field is long lived and generally well organized by the flow of the vortex. Black and Hallett (1986, 1999) utilize observations

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Erin E. Jones
,
Kevin Garrett
, and
Sid-Ahmed Boukabara

( Andersson et al. 2007 ; Geer et al. 2014 ). In this study, we focus on the assimilation of humidity observations from the Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d’Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) on board the Megha-Tropiques satellite, which measures radiances across six channels in the 183-GHz band and allows for the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor profiles over a greater vertical range of the atmospheric column compared to other microwave humidity sounders. Efforts to directly

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Hui W. Christophersen
,
Brittany A. Dahl
,
Jason P. Dunion
,
Robert F. Rogers
,
Frank D. Marks
,
Robert Atlas
, and
William J. Blackwell

system. This study utilizes the OSSE approach to demonstrate the potential impact of assimilating satellite radiances from the Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) mission on tropical cyclone (TC) analyses and forecasts in a regional model. As part of the NASA Earth Venture-Instrument program, TROPICS will provide unprecedented rapid-refresh microwave (MW) measurements over the tropics that can be used to observe the

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Rosanne Polkinghorne
,
Tomislava Vukicevic
, and
K. Franklin Evans

S. K. Dhall , 2006 : Dynamic Data Assimilation—A Least Squares Approach . Cambridge University Press, 654 pp . Liljegren , J. C. , 1994 : Two-channel microwave radiometer for observations of total column precipitable water vapor and cloud liquid water path. Preprints, Fifth Symp. on Global Change Studies, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 262

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Zhaoyang Huo
,
Yubao Liu
,
Yueqin Shi
,
Baojun Chen
,
Hang Fan
, and
Yang Li

operational observational network in large numbers but have the potential to provide massive profile information of wind, temperature, and humidity in real time: 1) Doppler wind lidar (DWL), 2) Doppler radar wind profiler (WP), and 3) microwave radiometer (MWR). The capabilities and accuracy of these platforms were evaluated based on the real data from the Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) action financed by the European Union, European Ground-Based Observations of Essential Variables for

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Young-Chan Noh
,
Hung-Lung Huang
,
Mitchell D. Goldberg
, and
Yonghan Choi

1. Introduction Global forecast skill has dramatically improved as a result of the improvement in initial conditions (called analysis) that has been achieved by assimilating satellite observations over areas where conventional ground-based measurements are sparse or nonexistent ( Rabier 2005 ; Migliorini et al. 2008 ; Bauer et al. 2015 ). In particular, significant forecast benefit is obtained by assimilating observations of the hyperspectral infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) sounders

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