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Imke Durre, Xungang Yin, Russell S. Vose, Scott Applequist, and Jeff Arnfield

and a set of additional parameters describing the moisture and stability of each profile ( Durre et al. 2006 ; Durre and Yin 2008 ). Since its release in 2004 by NCEI’s predecessor, the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), version 1 of IGRA (IGRA 1) has proven to be useful for both research and practical applications. Studies on a variety of atmospheric processes and structures ( Añel et al. 2007 ; Seidel et al. 2010 , 2012 ; Rapp et al. 2011 ; Sorokina and Esau 2011 ), analyses of trends in

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Larry M. McMillin and Henry E. Fleming

design of satellite sounding instruments there are many factors that determine the accuracies of theretrieved temperature and moisture profiles. However, the three major factors are: instrument noise, numberof channels and weighting function half-widths. The effect of these three factors on retrieved temperatures areexamined through simulation studies to determine trade-offs among them. We conclude that the trade-offsamong the three factors suggest that very different instrument designs can yield

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Shinta Seto and Toshio Iguchi

cover ( Ulaby et al. 1984 ; Prevot et al. 1993 ; Moran et al. 1998 ). Total scattering consists of single scattering at bare soil surfaces, at soil surfaces under vegetation, or at vegetation, and double scattering at vegetation and the soil surface. Scattering at the soil surface is usually treated as surface scattering, while volume scattering becomes substantial under very dry soil conditions. Surface soil moisture and roughness are key variables that affect scattering at the soil surface

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Jacqueline Boutin, Philippe Waldteufel, Nicolas Martin, Gérard Caudal, and Emmanuel Dinnat

oceanographic studies (e.g., on the order of 10–50 km to resolve mesoscale eddies or of 100–200 km for constraining ocean circulation models). This hindered the development of L-band satellite missions during the previous decades. Recently, new satellite projects for measuring SSS that take advantage of technical improvements have emerged. In that context, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) (see for more

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Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, Mathieu Hamon, Jacqueline Boutin, Jean-Luc Vergely, Gilles Reverdin, Alexandre Supply, and Nicolas Reul

modulating air–sea exchange, can have a strong impact on El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; Vialard and Delecluse 1998 ), on Indian monsoon precipitation ( Shenoi and Shankar 2002 ), or on the oceanic productivity ( Picaut et al. 2001 ). Eventually, in the context of anthropogenic climate change, the ocean salinity is also a key indicator of climate changes, since it is a tracer of the hydrological cycle ( Durack et al. 2012 ). Ten years of L-band satellite measurements produced by the Soil Moisture

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Shin-Hoo Kang, Tae-Young Goo, and Mi-Lim Ou

1. Introduction Radiosonde measurements are important sources of data for climate studies and numerical weather prediction. However, because of high costs and the low temporal resolution of radiosondes, there has been much effort to retrieve temperature and moisture profiles from remote sensing instruments with high-temporal resolution instead of radiosondes. Vertical resolving power of temperature and moisture requires high-spectral resolution measurements. This has led to the development of

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S. Lolli, P. Di Girolamo, B. Demoz, X. Li, and E. J. Welton

, precipitation, evaporation, and runoff. An adequate understanding and improved prediction capability of these processes are fundamental to maintaining sustainable water resources on Earth. The contribution of rain evaporation to the heat and moisture budgets of clouds, to the atmospheric moisture cycling and latent heating, is fundamental but very few measurements of these processes are presently available ( Xie et al. 2016 ; Worden et al. 2007 ). Cloud lifetime is very sensitive to drizzle and virga

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Biyan Chen, Zhizhao Liu, Wai-Kin Wong, and Wang-Chun Woo

also demonstrated that GPS tomographic results could well reveal the moisture variation before the onset of precipitation. Located at the coast of the South China Sea, Hong Kong, China, is a highly populated metropolis with a typical monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate ( Peel et al. 2007 ; Liu et al. 2014 ). In winter, it is affected by cool northeast monsoons that make the local weather rather cool and dry. In summer, the air over the Asian continent is warmer than that over ocean; a

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E. R. Kursinski, S. Syndergaard, D. Flittner, D. Feng, G. Hajj, B. Herman, D. Ward, and T. Yunck

1. Introduction Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere ( Manabe and Wetherald 1967 ) and is the one significant atmospheric constituent whose mixing ratio is controlled to first order by its saturation vapor pressure. Its extreme sensitivity to temperature is reflected in the five orders of magnitude change in concentration from the tropical surface to the tropopause. Nonetheless, fractional changes in moisture in the upper and lower troposphere exert similar

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David E. Reed, Ankur R. Desai, Emily C. Whitaker, and Henry Nuckles

method of measuring in situ ice depth for a drastically reduced cost. The method of Whitaker et al. (2016) uses repurposed soil moisture sensors that have an approximate cost of $600 each to quantify the phase change of water. These sensors are able to provide a novel method for high-frequency observations, similar to higher-cost in situ buoys ( Polashenski et al. 2011 ), or subsurface sonar sensors that can cost $18,000 each. By being cost effective, these sensors allow multiple spatial

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