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Mohammad Karamouz, Erfan Goharian, and Sara Nazif

(GCMs), which are the most advanced tools currently available in this field. GCMs are widely applied for understanding the climate, weather forecasting, and projecting climate change. In the past few years, various studies have investigated the hydrological impact of climate change (e.g., Boorman and Sefton 1997 ; Bergström et al. 2001 ; Gao et al. 2002 ; Christensen et al. 2004 ; Chen et al. 2007 ). Charlton et al. ( Charlton et al. 2006 ) examined the impact of climate change on flood hazard

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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

Center of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The assimilated data were obtained from a model forced with weekly mean NCEP operational atmospheric analyses of surface winds and heat fluxes. For more information, see Behringer et al. ( Behringer et al., 1998 ). The geopotential height and wind data at standard vertical levels came from the monthly NCEP reanalysis data ( Kalnay et al., 1996 ). The NCEP reanalysis data were acquired as 5° × 2.5° arrays. Finally, the precipitation

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Mônica Carneiro Alves Senna, Marcos Heil Costa, Lucía Iracema Chipponelli Pinto, Hewlley Maria Acioli Imbuzeiro, Luciana Mara Freitas Diniz, and Gabrielle Ferreira Pires

Precipitation (CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 ), Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Huffman et al. 1997 ), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Kummerow et al. 1998 ); and two reanalysis datasets: National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) ( Uppala et al. 2005 ). All available data in the time series are used to describe the precipitation climatology. The

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Jinyun Tang and William J. Riley

( Reynolds et al. 2018 ), both of which are popular tools to develop biogeochemical models, either for research or operational use (e.g., Hong et al. 2005 ). In the third scheme [Proportional Nitrogen Flux-Based Limitation (PNL); fourth row of Figure 2 ], the newly released and existing mineral nitrogen is first summed to obtain the total nitrogen available to support nitrogen immobilizing processes over the coupling time step (step 1; in the graphic example, this gives three boxes of soil mineral

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Emmanuel M. Attua and Joshua B. Fisher

use at any time given all previous uses at earlier times depends mostly on the most recent use and not on any earlier ones ( Brown et al. 2000 ). A major advantage of the Markov modeling technique is its operational simplicity and the ability to project land-use change with minimum data requirements ( Aaviksoo 1995 ; Brown et al. 2000 ). This is particularly relevant in any study area where there is a dearth of historical data on land use (or land cover). Once a transition matrix has been

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

over time, with little consideration within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) given on how to track adaptation across parties ( Ford et al. 2015 ). This situation reflects conceptual, methodological, and empirical challenges of tracking adaptation at this scale. Ford et al. (2015) identified a number of key steps that will need to be taken to address this challenge, including 1) the need to determine an operational definition of adaptation, 2) decide what

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Gregory T. Pederson, Stephen T. Gray, Daniel B. Fagre, and Lisa J. Graumlich

known as Glacier” ( Henneberger 2004 ). At the same time, a diminished snowpack reduces some Glacier NP operational expenses and potentially provides a boon for local tourism. The sole road across the crest of the Rockies in Glacier NP (the “Going-to-the-Sun Road”) is closed in the winter due to snow, and there is a substantial cost to plow and open the road each spring. The road is the economic lifeline for gateway and regional communities, generating approximately one million dollars per day in

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