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Hironobu Iwabuchi, Soichiro Yamada, Shuichiro Katagiri, Ping Yang, and Hajime Okamoto

pressing need exists to better quantify cirrus microphysical properties in global climate modeling. Satellite observations provide unique capabilities to infer the global distribution of cirrus properties and their dependence on meteorological and macrophysical states—in particular, temperature, pressure, and cloud type. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational products for optical thickness and the effective particle radius have been derived by a solar

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Albert Arking and Jeffrey D. Childs

1984) A technique is described for extracting cloud cover parameters from multispectral satellite radiometricmeasurements. Utilizing three channels (visible, 3.7 ~m and 11 s~m) from the AVHRR (Advanced VeryHigh Resolution Radiometer) on NOAA polar orbiting satellites, it is shown that one can retrieve fourparameters for each pixel: cloud fraction within the FOV, optical thickness, cloud-top temperature and amicrophysical model parameter. The last parameter is an index representing the properties

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Amanda Gumber and Michael J. Foster

properties as well as to provide a relationship between clouds and their radiative properties. Satellite instruments provide the only record of long-term global cloud observations that can provide validation for models. Satellite records experience their own set of issues, however. Similar to GCMs, satellite retrieval algorithms often use 1D radiative transfer for solving the inverse problem of satellite remote sensing. This approach causes errors in retrieving cloud optical properties such as optical

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Yoram J. Kaufman and Teruyuki Nakajima

from satellite data it is impossible toderive all the parameters that influence cloud properties and smoke-cloud interaction (e.g., detailed aerosolparticles size distribution and chemistry, liquid water content, etc.); satellite data can be used to generate largescale statistics of the properties of clouds and surrounding aerosol (e.g., smoke optical thickness, cloud-dropsize, and cloud reflection of solar radiation) from which the interaction of aerosol with clouds can be surmised.- In order to

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D. D. Turner

temperature profiles observed by radiosondes, are a critical input to the cloud property retrieval algorithm. Algorithm Turner et al. (2003) demonstrated that cloud phase could be determined using ground-based AERI observations in both the 8–13- and 17–25- μ m windows by using a series of threshold tests. MIXCRA extends those results by physically retrieving cloud optical depth due to water and ice ( τ w and τ i , respectively) and the effective sizes of the water ( r e,w ) and ice ( r e,i ) particles

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Jeffrey R. Key and Janet M. Intrieri

Introduction Cloud particle phase, size, and density determine to what degree radiation is absorbed, scattered, and transmitted. These physical properties are directly related to three important radiative (optical) properties: the single-scattering albedo, volume extinction coefficient, and phase function (cf. Slingo and Schrecker 1982 ). It is the optical properties that are used in radiative transfer models for the computation of upwelling and downwelling radiative fluxes and intensities

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James B. Pollack, Owen B. Toon, Andrey Summers, Warren Van Camp, and Betty Baldwin

properties of the various typesof vehicles to estimate their optical depth perturbation and examined the record of past climate changes toset a threshold value, 0.1 K, on the mean surface temperature change, below which no significant impact isto be expected. Using the above information, we find that no significant climate change should result fromthe aerosols produced by Space Shuttles, SST's, and other high flying aircraft, operating at traffic levelsprojected for the next several decades. However, the

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Joseph Sedlar

liquid-bearing clouds (LWP ranging from 10 to 60 g m −2 ) are evident in observations across the Arctic basin with occurrence frequencies as large as 30%–40%. In fact, they identify a sufficiently optically thin liquid-bearing cloud layer over Summit, Greenland, during July 2012 as responsible for contributing to the first observed surface melting event at Summit since 1889. Thus, more observational analysis on the similarities and differences of static mixing processes for optically thin and thick

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R. J. Ball and G. D. Robinson

Statesis estimated and some aspects of the origin of the haze investigated. Observed optical properties of the hazeare reviewed and their relation to visual range measurements demonstrated. An approximate radiativetransfer model relates visual range and mixing-height observations to solar irradiance at the ground, andthe relation is validated against detailed irradiance observations on two days, and against observed monthlyand annual irradiation at one station. Statistics of irradiation depletion are

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Steven J. Cooper, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Philip Gabriel, Anthony J. Baran, and Graeme L. Stephens

al. 1988 ) relies on differences in radiative properties for cloud particles at two wavelengths in the window region to estimate cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellite-observed brightness temperatures. An inherent shortcoming of this approach is that retrieved parameters are strongly dependent upon cloud temperature. For given 10.8- and 12.0- μ m brightness temperatures, a different effective radius and optical depth are found for each cloud temperature assumption in Fig. 1

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