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Riccardo Farneti, Stefano Salon, Alessandro Crise, and Rodney Martinez

Caribbean and Mediterranean countries. The mitigation and adaptation to climate change and anthropogenic pressures can therefore be envisioned in a holistic approach where science, economy, and society jointly participate at both national and regional levels for the identification, discussion, and adoption of the best practices to manage the sustainable exploitation of marine resources. Climate change in both the Caribbean and the Mediterranean basins is therefore tightly connected with the subjacent

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Philip W. Mote, Myles R. Allen, Richard G. Jones, Sihan Li, Roberto Mera, David E. Rupp, Ahmed Salahuddin, and Dean Vickers

single RCM [4 in Duffy et al. (2006) ; 2 in Salathé et al. (2010) ; 3 in Déqué et al. (2012) ; 3 in Hostetler et al. (2012) ]. In addition, several coordinated ensemble modeling projects have been conducted with regional models. Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE; Christiansen and Christensen 2007 ) ran between one and five simulations using eight RCMs at 50 km over Europe for 1961–90 and 2071–2100. The North

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G. Bala and Akhilesh Gupta

stratosphere to form sulfate aerosols and deflect about 1%–2% of the incoming solar radiation. Climate modeling studies have consistently confirmed that solar geoengineering can markedly diminish regional and seasonal climate change from anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Lowering of temperature by geoengineering would reduce some of the worst effects of climate warming such as sea level rise and the increase in heat waves and extreme rainfall events. While solar geoengineering schemes such as sulfate aerosol

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Hunter M. Jones, Amanda V. Quintana, Juli Trtanj, John Balbus, Paul Schramm, Shubhayu Saha, Trisha Castranio, and Tom E. Di Liberto

the CHMO as a national dashboard providing access to highly tuned regional and local products, such as those shown earlier in the day. In effect, the CHMO could be a mosaic of detailed predictions and could generate broader key messages for health users from a national perspective. Thus, the CHMO could perform a basic education function. It could essentially help public health departments to broadcast scientifically sound messages about the health effects of climate and increase health

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Linda O. Mearns, Ray Arritt, Sébastien Biner, Melissa S. Bukovsky, Seth McGinnis, Stephan Sain, Daniel Caya, James Correia Jr., Dave Flory, William Gutowski, Eugene S. Takle, Richard Jones, Ruby Leung, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Larry McDaniel, Ana M. B. Nunes, Yun Qian, John Roads, Lisa Sloan, and Mark Snyder

nesting and nested models); and to enhance collaboration among the U.S., Canadian, and European climate modeling groups, leveraging the diverse modeling capability across the countries. As impressive as the two European programs exploring regional future climate uncertainty are, they also have limitations. In Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE), most of the regional models used only one or at most two AOGCMs for boundary

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C. Venkataraman, M. Bhushan, S. Dey, D. Ganguly, T. Gupta, G. Habib, A. Kesarkar, H. Phuleria, and R. Sunder Raman

ground-based networks, field campaigns, and satellite observations have helped further our understanding of the characteristics and climate effects of aerosols in the Indian region. Earlier studies related to this region have focused on natural and anthropogenic climate forcing by aerosols, through direct radiative forcing and cloud microphysical effects, along with feedbacks on regional and global climate ( Ramanathan et al. 2001 ; Moorthy et al. 2009 ; Lau et al. 2008 ). Concerns related to

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John P. Dawson, Bryan J. Bloomer, Darrell A. Winner, and Christopher P. Weaver

longer-term monthly, seasonal, and annual averages or by grouping various regions or PM species together. For example, Pye et al. (2009) simulated large seasonal and regional effects (on the order of several μg m −3 ) that mostly negated one another when averaged over the entire year and summed to account for total PM. Nevertheless, some common general conclusions emerged from these initial studies: Very broadly, for sulfate, these earlier modeling studies consistently found that simulated

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Jiaojiao Gou, Chiyuan Miao, Luis Samaniego, Mu Xiao, Jingwen Wu, and Xiaoying Guo

effects of climate change. Changes in frequency and duration of hydrological extremes, such as droughts ( Samaniego et al. 2018 ), floods ( Ficchì and Stephens 2019 ), and glacial melting ( Gao et al. 2019 ), are prime ways to experience climatic change impacts on the environment and the socio-economic conditions of a region. In this context, better tools, such as improved hydrological flow databases, are needed for managing terrestrial water resources and detecting the effect of climate change in

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Yun Qian, Charles Jackson, Filippo Giorgi, Ben Booth, Qingyun Duan, Chris Forest, Dave Higdon, Z. Jason Hou, and Gabriel Huerta

, such as the effects of uncertain initial and boundary conditions, uncertain physics, and the limitations of observational records. Progress in quantitatively estimating uncertainties in hydrologic, land surface, and atmospheric models at both regional and global scales was also reviewed. The application of uncertainty quantification (UQ) concepts to coupled climate system models is still in its infancy. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) multimodel ensemble currently represents the

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Guy P. Brasseur, Mohan Gupta, Bruce E. Anderson, Sathya Balasubramanian, Steven Barrett, David Duda, Gregg Fleming, Piers M. Forster, Jan Fuglestvedt, Andrew Gettelman, Rangasayi N. Halthore, S. Daniel Jacob, Mark Z. Jacobson, Arezoo Khodayari, Kuo-Nan Liou, Marianne T. Lund, Richard C. Miake-Lye, Patrick Minnis, Seth Olsen, Joyce E. Penner, Ronald Prinn, Ulrich Schumann, Henry B. Selkirk, Andrei Sokolov, Nadine Unger, Philip Wolfe, Hsi-Wu Wong, Donald W. Wuebbles, Bingqi Yi, Ping Yang, and Cheng Zhou

analysis of non-CO 2 climate impacts metric options such as RF, global temperature change potential (GTP), regional temperature potential (RTP), and global warming potential (GWP). Refer to sidebar on "Metrics for Aviation Effects on Climate: ACCRI Contributions" for more discussion. METRICS FOR AVIATION EFFECTS ON CLIMATE: ACCRI CONTRIBUTIONS A key part of ACCRI’s focus has been the refinement of analytical tools and metrics that simplify the complex understanding of the science as an aid in decision

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