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Jinliang Liu and Ronald E. Stewart

1. Introduction Water vapor transport into and out of a region is a major factor associated with its climate. Extensive water budget analyses have been carried out over a number of regions around the world such as the Arctic ( Walsh et al. 1994 ; Serreze et al. 1995 ; Cullather et al. 2000 ), Mississippi River basin ( Roads et al. 1998 ; Betts et al. 1999 ; Roads and Betts 2000 ; Roads 2002 ; Roads et al. 2002 , and many others), and the Mackenzie River basin ( Walsh et al. 1994

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G. Q. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Xuan, J. F. Liu, J. L. Jin, Z. X. Bao, R. M. He, C. S. Liu, Y. L. Liu, and X. L. Yan

precipitation, and evapotranspiration for 38 forested watersheds in New England, United States, and concluded climate warming could reduce runoff significantly. Jones et al. (2005) estimated the sensitivities of mean annual runoff in 22 Australian catchments to climate change using selected hydrological models, showing how results varied between models. Wang et al. (2011) analyzed hydrological characteristics of the Liao River basin, China, and its response to climate change and concluded that an increase

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Michael D. Dettinger

of persistent droughts across the United States, with an emphasis on the West Coast, and a quantitative evaluation of the historical role of a particular type of storm—the so-called atmospheric river (AR; Zhu and Newell 1998 )—in ending droughts, particularly along the U.S. West Coast, during the past six decades. By understanding the role of this storm type in the ending, or “busting,” of persistent droughts, greater attention to describing that storm type's frequency of occurrence and in

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Stephen J. Déry, Marc Stieglitz, Åsa K. Rennermalm, and Eric F. Wood

1. Introduction Over the past century, the Arctic has undergone regional warming at rates of 0.5°C or more per decade ( Chapman and Walsh 1993 ). This has induced changes in other hydrometeorological conditions, including an increase in precipitation (e.g., Serreze et al. 2000 ; Walsh 2000 ), an intensification of freshwater discharge from major rivers ( Peterson et al. 2002 ), and an enhancement of evapotranspiration fluxes ( Serreze et al. 2003 ). As Arctic precipitation is augmenting

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Wenyi Xie, Xiankui Zeng, Dongwei Gui, Jichun Wu, and Dong Wang

1. Introduction In the arid land of northwestern China, production activities and lives are greatly affected by the allocation of water resources. As the major water source of rivers, ice and snow meltwater from the cold and arid mountain areas greatly impacts the availability of water resources. Therefore, snowmelt runoff modeling and prediction are necessary for water resource management in cold and arid areas. The Tizinafu River basin is located at the central part of Eurasia in southwestern

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Charlotte M. Emery, Cédric H. David, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Michael J. Turmon, John T. Reager, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Ming Pan, James S. Famiglietti, Edward Beighley, and Matthew Rodell

1. Introduction Hydrological models are essential tools to simulate the fluxes of water and associated storage changes within continental surfaces and hence to understand the terrestrial water cycle ( Döll et al. 2016 ). The first hydrological models emerged during the second half of the nineteenth century as empirical rainfall–runoff models and were initially conceived to predict peak flows ( Todini 2007 ). Nowadays, a noticeable portion of hydrologic models, known as river routing models

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are longitudinally narrow regions of the atmosphere that have large integrated water vapor (IWV) and integrated water vapor transport (IVT), accounting for over 90% of the poleward flux of water vapor across middle latitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Guan and Waliser 2015 ). They typically occur ahead of cold fronts in the warm, moist sector of an extratropical cyclone, and the direction of water vapor transport is oriented approximately parallel to the

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Hamish McGowan, Kara Borthwick, Andrew Schwartz, John Nik Callow, Shane Bilish, and Stuart Browning

for runoff from marginal warm snowpack regions including the southern Sierra Nevada and Colorado River headwaters. These extreme runoff events will increase flood risk placing communities and hundreds of billions of dollars of infrastructure at risk of loss ( Corringham et al. 2019 ). A declining snow cover combined with an increased number of RoS events may also alter water resource availability, resulting in a contraction in the duration of alpine snowmelt supplying water to downstream areas

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Qian Cao, Shraddhanand Shukla, Michael J. DeFlorio, F. Martin Ralph, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

( Pegion et al. 2019 ). The former consists of 11 models, while the latter consists of 7 models and focuses on operational subseasonal forecasts. The two databases have two models in common: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) model and the Environment and Canada Climate Change (ECCC) model. Both databases have been increasingly used by the S2S research community for a variety of applications (e.g., DeFlorio et al. 2019b ; Gibson et al. 2020 ). Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs), or dynamic, narrow filaments of enhanced integrated water vapor transport (IVT) ( Ralph et al. 2018 ), account for up to 50% of the annual precipitation along the West Coast of the United States ( Neiman et al. 2011 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Lamjiri et al. 2017 ). Such events are important to the hydrology of the region, having been shown to relieve droughts along the West Coast, particularly in the Pacific Northwest ( Dettinger 2013 ). ARs are an important

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