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Wenyi Xie, Xiankui Zeng, Dongwei Gui, Jichun Wu, and Dong Wang

1. Introduction In the arid land of northwestern China, production activities and lives are greatly affected by the allocation of water resources. As the major water source of rivers, ice and snow meltwater from the cold and arid mountain areas greatly impacts the availability of water resources. Therefore, snowmelt runoff modeling and prediction are necessary for water resource management in cold and arid areas. The Tizinafu River basin is located at the central part of Eurasia in southwestern

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Charlotte M. Emery, Cédric H. David, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Michael J. Turmon, John T. Reager, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Ming Pan, James S. Famiglietti, Edward Beighley, and Matthew Rodell

1. Introduction Hydrological models are essential tools to simulate the fluxes of water and associated storage changes within continental surfaces and hence to understand the terrestrial water cycle ( Döll et al. 2016 ). The first hydrological models emerged during the second half of the nineteenth century as empirical rainfall–runoff models and were initially conceived to predict peak flows ( Todini 2007 ). Nowadays, a noticeable portion of hydrologic models, known as river routing models

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are longitudinally narrow regions of the atmosphere that have large integrated water vapor (IWV) and integrated water vapor transport (IVT), accounting for over 90% of the poleward flux of water vapor across middle latitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Guan and Waliser 2015 ). They typically occur ahead of cold fronts in the warm, moist sector of an extratropical cyclone, and the direction of water vapor transport is oriented approximately parallel to the

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Qian Cao, Shraddhanand Shukla, Michael J. DeFlorio, F. Martin Ralph, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

( Pegion et al. 2019 ). The former consists of 11 models, while the latter consists of 7 models and focuses on operational subseasonal forecasts. The two databases have two models in common: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) model and the Environment and Canada Climate Change (ECCC) model. Both databases have been increasingly used by the S2S research community for a variety of applications (e.g., DeFlorio et al. 2019b ; Gibson et al. 2020 ). Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs), or dynamic, narrow filaments of enhanced integrated water vapor transport (IVT) ( Ralph et al. 2018 ), account for up to 50% of the annual precipitation along the West Coast of the United States ( Neiman et al. 2011 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Lamjiri et al. 2017 ). Such events are important to the hydrology of the region, having been shown to relieve droughts along the West Coast, particularly in the Pacific Northwest ( Dettinger 2013 ). ARs are an important

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Rebecca A. Smith and Christian D. Kummerow

1. Introduction In the semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, much of the water supply for seven states primarily begins as snowpack in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB). With sparse vegetation in the basin, changes in temperature and precipitation lead to direct responses in the water budget (particularly storage in snowpack and runoff), thus greatly affecting the water supply. A complete understanding of the water budget is critical, as changes can have major socioeconomic

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Terence J. Pagano, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, Hengchun Ye, F. Martin Ralph, and Jinwon Kim

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long and narrow pathways of enhanced moisture transport, predominantly originating in the tropics ( American Meteorological Society 2017 ). They carry the majority of the poleward moisture flux across midlatitude regions, despite only occupying approximately 10% of the total longitudinal length at these latitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). When making landfall, ARs are typically associated with heavy precipitation ( Lamjiri et al. 2017 ; Leung and

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Hengchun Ye, Steve Ladochy, Daqing Yang, Tingjun Zhang, Xuebin Zhang, and Mark Ellison

1. Introduction Three major rivers in Siberia, Russia—the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena—together contribute more than 45% of the total freshwater inflow to the Arctic Ocean ( Shiklomanov et al. 2000 ; Prowse and Flegg 2000 ). The variability of these rivers' discharges significantly affects salinity and sea ice formation and hence global ocean circulation and climate ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ). The dynamics of discharge also control the timing and magnitude of flooding and sediment distribution over

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Mohammed Ombadi, Phu Nguyen, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Kuo-lin Hsu

1. Introduction The Nile River basin constitutes approximately 10% of the African continent ( Swain 2008 ) extending across eleven countries. A total population of 462 million in these countries is growing at an annual growth rate of 2.5%, faster than the average global growth rate estimated at 1.1%. Consequently, the population of these countries is projected to reach 836 million (81% increase) by the year 2050 ( The World Bank 2018 , 2020 ). A key challenge, therefore, that face these

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Terri S. Hogue, Soroosh Sorooshian, Hoshin Gupta, Andrea Holz, and Dean Braatz

parameters with interacting effects must be adjusted. The NWS is currently undergoing a process of modernization, including installation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). Under AHPS, the river forecast centers (RFCs) have been issued deadlines for the calibration of the SAC-SMA and SNOW-17 models to the roughly 4000 forecast points in this system (J. Ingram 1996, personal communication). The North Central RFC (NCRFC), one of the NWS’s largest river forecast centers, is in the process

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