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Masami Nonaka and Kensuke Takeuchi

1. Introduction In a meridional salinity section in the central Pacific ( Fig. 1a ), a high salinity tongue extends from the subtropics to the Tropics on either side of the equator. Figure 2a depicts the tropical salinity distribution on the σ θ = 24.5 isopycnal surface, a density surface around which high salinity cores are located on both hemispheres. In the Southern Hemisphere, a high salinity tongue (>35.0 psu) extends northwestward all the way to the western boundary and the equator

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Esther Portela, Emilio Beier, Eric D. Barton, Rubén Castro, Victor Godínez, Emilio Palacios-Hernández, Paul C. Fiedler, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, and Armando Trasviña

this water mass that reaches the TPCM with specific biogeochemical features as the minimum content of oxygen. Instead, the StUW is a more general term that includes the StSsW but refers to the waters formed by subduction in the vicinity of the subtropical gyres in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. According to McDougall and Barker (2011) , absolute salinity ( S A ) and conservative temperature (Θ) corresponding to the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10), must be used in scientific

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Francisco Machín, Josep L. Pelegrí, E. Fraile-Nuez, P. Vélez-Belchí, F. López-Laatzen, and A. Hernández-Guerra

1. Introduction Two water masses interleave in the Canary Basin at intermediate levels: northward-flowing Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and southward-flowing Mediterranean Water (MW). AAIW may be found in the 600–1100-m depth range, whereas MW reaches deeper, roughly from 900- to 1500-m depth ( van Aken 2000 ; Machín and Pelegrí 2009 ). AAIW and MW are characterized by minimum ( S < 35.3) and maximum ( S > 35.5) salinity values, respectively ( Arhan et al. 1994 ; Machín et al. 2006

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Benjamin Scheifele, Rich Pawlowicz, Tobias Sommer, and Alfred Wüest

questions regarding the details of double-diffusive transport and layering remain active topics of research, as highlighted by a number of recent studies ( Carpenter and Timmermans 2014 ; Sommer et al. 2013a ; Flanagan et al. 2013 ; Radko et al. 2014 ). There are two modes of double diffusion: the salt fingering mode, which may occur when temperature and salinity both decrease with depth, and the diffusive convection mode, which may occur when temperature and salinity both increase with depth. This

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M. Susan Lozier and Laurie Sindlinger

1. Introduction Surface waters of the eastern North Atlantic that flow into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar are subject to an excess of evaporation over precipitation in this enclosed sea, making them more saline and dense before they exit the strait and return to the North Atlantic. After exiting the strait, these return waters mix with the surrounding waters in the Gulf of Cadiz ( Baringer and Price 1997 ) to produce a water mass known as Mediterranean Overflow Water

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Julie Alexander and Adam H. Monahan

model was used to study climate feedbacks after a major disruption of the THC. In this study, the THC was made to collapse by applying strong freshwater forcing to the top layers of the North Atlantic. After about 100 yr, the model’s THC had largely recovered and most climatic anomalies had disappeared. The rapid growth of perturbations in a system is of considerable theoretical interest because it may be a precursor to a large-scale event. Finding the spatial structure of the optimal salinity and

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Earle A. Wilson and Stephen C. Riser

1. Introduction The variability of salinity in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) has significant influence over a wide range of physical processes in the region. This influence is mainly derived from the role salinity plays in setting the bay’s near-surface stratification. In the upper 50 m of the bay, salinity rapidly increases with depth and often forms a strong halocline near the surface (e.g., Shetye et al. 1996 ; Thadathil et al. 2007 ). The presence of this near-surface halocline sets a

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William S. Kessler

). However, despite the overall scantiness of subsurface ocean data in the South Pacific, in a few locations sufficient observations exist to construct time series that might show variations in the strength and properties of the South Pacific STC. The general paucity of salinity observations has restricted the STC observational focus to studies of temperature alone, but a few longitudes have seen repeated CTD sections that do resolve interannual subsurface salinity fluctuations, and the purpose of the

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Theodore D. Foster and Eddy C. Carmack

36 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLO~E6Temperature and Salinity Structure in the Weddell Sea Tm~o~oir~ D. Fos~i~ AND EDDY C. CA2~CX~Scripps Institution of Oc~anograpl~y, La $olla, Calif. 02003(Manuscript received 6 March 1975, in revised form 24 July 1975) The general circulation of water in the Weddell Sea is part of a large cyclonic gyre. A section takenacross this gyre from the Scotia Ridge to

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Femke C. Vossepoel and David W. Behringer

discrepancy appears to be related to the relatively fresh conditions in the western Pacific. In these experiments the introduction of T/P observations into the assimilation has improved the model sea level, but has degraded the model temperature field. Ji et al. conclude that this is the result of the assimilation system applying the wrong correction to temperature to compensate for an inaccurate representation of salinity in the model. This conclusion is supported by the work of Maes (1998) who showed

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