Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 6,215 items for :

  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Zheng Liu and Axel Schweiger

1. Introduction How atmosphere and sea ice interact depends on the prevailing weather, which can be characterized by the synoptic condition. Stramler et al. (2011) report that during the wintertime of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) field campaign ( Uttal et al. 2002 ), there were two preferred states of surface and atmospheric conditions with distinct signatures in the surface net longwave radiative fluxes: a warm and opaquely cloudy state with low surface pressure, and a cold

Full access
Laura Landrum, Marika M. Holland, David P. Schneider, and Elizabeth Hunke

1. Introduction The Antarctic sea ice cover undergoes a large seasonal range from a climatological maximum of approximately 19 million km 2 in extent in September to a minimum of 3 million km 2 in February (e.g., Cavalieri and Parkinson 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). The seasonal cycle of ice advance and retreat is influenced by the dominant seasonality in the atmosphere and the semiannual oscillation (SAO)—a biannual (spring and autumn) strengthening and poleward migration of the circumpolar trough (e

Full access
Jun Inoue, Masatake E. Hori, and Koutarou Takaya

1. Introduction The decline in Arctic sea ice during summer has had a leading role in temperature amplification during autumn and winter, partly through air–sea heat transfer ( Graversen et al. 2008 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). One of the important heat transfer processes is the release of ocean heat associated with autumn cyclone activity along the marginal ice zone ( Inoue and Hori 2011 ). Frequent meridional heat transport, as well as air–sea heat exchange during autumn, is vital to the

Full access
Nikolay V. Koldunov, Detlef Stammer, and Jochem Marotzke

1. Introduction The projection of sea ice provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests a dramatic decline of Arctic summer sea ice extent (SIE) over the next 50 to 100 years. Yet, an analysis of the full ensemble of all IPCC climate projections of Arctic summer sea ice under increasing CO 2 conditions shows a considerable spread of individual simulations ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ) and reveals that only 50% of all solutions suggest an extinction of Arctic summer sea

Full access
Tessa Sou and Gregory Flato

Zhang 2005 ; Stroeve et al. 2007 ), replacing natural variability as the dominant force in ice cover changes ( Melling 2001 ; Holloway and Sou 2002 ; Polyakov et al. 2003 ). Ice retreat has been regional, with losses primarily concentrated in the Beaufort and East Siberian Seas ( Stroeve et al. 2005 ). Previously, observations from 1979–99 indicated significant negative trends in sea ice extent in the eastern Arctic (e.g., Barents and Kara Sea) while the central Arctic and Canadian Arctic

Full access
Hannah M. Director, Adrian E. Raftery, and Cecilia M. Bitz

correct for these errors. This class of methods develops statistical representations of the error patterns in climate models using retrospective comparisons of observations and model output. These statistical representations are then used to correct for the expected error in predictions obtained from dynamical model forecasts ( Maraun 2016 ; Meehl et al. 2014 ). Arctic sea ice cover has decreased substantially in recent years, causing increased interest in predicting it ( Comiso et al. 2008

Open access
Russell Blackport and Paul J. Kushner

1. Introduction Recent decades have seen the Arctic warm more than twice as fast as the global average temperature—a process known as Arctic amplification ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Walsh 2014 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ). This has motivated investigation into the impacts of rapid Arctic warming and sea ice loss on the large-scale atmosphere circulation, including its contribution to extreme weather events at lower latitudes. However, there remains large uncertainties due

Full access
Alexander D. Fraser, Robert A. Massom, Kelvin J. Michael, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, and Jan L. Lieser

1. Introduction Landfast sea ice (fast ice) is sea ice that is held stationary (fast) by being attached to coastal features (e.g., the shoreline, glacier tongues, and ice shelves), grounded icebergs, or grounded over shoals ( Massom et al. 2001 ; World Meteorological Organization 1970 ). It is a preeminent feature of the Antarctic coastal zone and an important interface between the ice sheet and pack ice/ocean. The reliance of fast ice upon these coastal features as anchor points means that it

Full access
Mari F. Jensen, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, and Michael A. Spall

°C warming on Greenland. In recent years, the agent for the warming on Greenland is believed to be abrupt reductions in sea ice cover ( Broecker 2000 ; Gildor and Tziperman 2003 ; Masson-Delmotte et al. 2005 ), in particular over the Nordic seas ( Li et al. 2005 ; Dokken et al. 2013 ). During stadial conditions on Greenland, the Nordic seas are hypothesized to be fully sea ice covered, thereby insulating the relatively warm ocean from the cold atmosphere above. An abrupt reduction in sea ice

Open access
Haixia Dai, Ke Fan, and Jiping Liu

the winter temperature of Northeast China ( Wu and Wang 2002 ; Liu et al. 2010 ; Wang and Chen 2010 ; Chen et al. 2013 ; He et al. 2017 ). Moreover, the phase transition of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/AO accompanied by a super ENSO event ( Geng et al. 2017 ) has also been found to be related to a phase reversal of the Siberian high and EAWM in boreal winter, which may further affect cold blocking events and local cooling over East Asia ( Chang and Lu 2012 ). Anomalous Arctic sea ice

Full access