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Kevin Barjenbruch, Carol M. Werner, Randall Graham, Cody Oppermann, Glenn Blackwelder, Jeff Williams, Glen Merrill, Scott Jensen, and Justin Connolly

involving public, private, and academic groups in support of the approaching 2002 Olympic Games ( Horel et al. 2002 ). Out of this effort the NWS and the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) began a partnership across a broad spectrum of activities. They were joined by the private Weathernet group (formerly NorthWest Weathernet) embedded at the UDOT Traffic Operations Center; these parties are collectively referred to as Utah Weather Partners. The initial goal between NWS and UDOT was to maximize

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Jung-Hoon Kim, William N. Chan, Banavar Sridhar, and Robert D. Sharman

and without a turbulence forecast. 2. Methodology and procedures of the turbulence forecasts From a meteorological perspective, small-scale turbulent eddies that directly affect commercial aircraft at cruising altitudes are generated by a number of possible sources. For example, strong vertical shears above and below a jet-stream core, inertial instability due to anticyclonic shear and curvature flow, and the gravity wave emissions via geostrophic adjustment in the jet-stream exit region are well

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

. The integration is along the flying trajectory. There are many kinds of alliances and partnerships between the various commercial airlines. A trip involving multiple stops is likely to be carried out by different airlines in collaboration. For example, between Beijing and Singapore, there are 14 companies offering a subweekly frequency transportation service. Asiana and Air China, for example, have a service first to Seoul then to Singapore. Cathay Pacific and Thai Airlines stop, respectively, at

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Cyril Morcrette, Katie Brown, Rebecca Bowyer, Philip Gill, and Dan Suri

handling of the aircraft, which can ultimately lead to a disastrous loss of control ( Cole and Sand 1991 ; Lankford 2000 , 2001 ; Politovich 2003 ). Meteorological factors, such as air temperature, humidity, and the presence and size of supercooled cloud particles, are important in determining the probability and severity of an in-flight icing event. In addition to some automated forecasts derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) model output, operational meteorologists at the Met Office

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Jung-Hoon Kim, William N. Chan, Banavar Sridhar, Robert D. Sharman, Paul D. Williams, and Matt Strahan

1. Introduction Emissions from en route commercial aircraft are a significant anthropogenic contribution to global warming as air transportation over the globe grows rapidly (e.g., Lee et al. 2009 , 2010 ). From an operational perspective, a method of reducing these emissions is to optimize flight routes in the presence of wind variations, which minimizes the total travel time and fuel consumption (e.g., Sridhar et al. 2011 ; Kim et al. 2015 ). This wind-optimal route (WOR) is regarded as

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Brent Knutson, Wenbo Tang, and Pak Wai Chan

Nijhuis et al. 2018 ). At the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) in China, for example, a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), two light detection and ranging (lidar) systems, and a dense network of surface wind sensors monitor low-level wind changes at and near the airport in real time. All of these on-ground sensor data, along with forecasts based on broad prevailing meteorological conditions and aircraft reports via air traffic controller, are used to automatically generate “up to the minute

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Marius J. Paulikas, Thomas W. Schmidlin, and Timothy P. Marshall

; Schmidlin and King 1997 ). In 2009, the NWS and American Red Cross modified their safety protocols; persons in mobile homes are now encouraged to abandon them, and persons outdoors are urged to seek shelter in vehicles only if no sturdy buildings are available nearby ( NOAA 2009 ; Simmons and Sutter 2012 ). Some in the meteorology field have observed that tornado-induced risk to motor vehicle occupants cannot be truly assessed without examining the issue of debris penetration, as fatalities have

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Jun Jiang, Wei Yan, Shuo Ma, Yangyang Jie, Xiarong Zhang, Shensen Hu, Lei Fan, and Linyu Xia

1. Introduction Fog and low stratus, which are associated with poor visibility and air quality, are common obstacles to traffic on land, in air, and at sea. Therefore, their accurate description in time and space is significant for societies and economies ( Pagowski et al. 2004 ; Cermak and Bendix 2008 ). While ground meteorological stations provide information about fog and low-stratus episodes, the data acquired by station observations are spatially discontinuous and temporally dispersed

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Gregory R. Herman and Russ S. Schumacher

network to generate probabilistic visibility forecasts for two European cities at short (1–6 h) lead times using observations. Hansen (2007) developed a skillful deterministic analog forecasting system for combined cloud ceiling and visibility categories. Hansen used model data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre’s (CMC) Global Environmental Multiscale Model (GEM). Chmielecki and Raftery (2011) applied the Bayesian model averaging technique using a regional mesoscale ensemble to make 12-h

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William P. Mahoney III and James M. O'Sullivan

on the weather community's technical understanding and eventual adoption of these unique datasets and their level of participation in connected vehicle initiatives within the transportation community. All sectors of the weather enterprise (e.g., public, private, and academic) must become involved to help define, shape, and support the effort to bring these data to bear on the weather and transportation communities. For this reason, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Board on Enterprise

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