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M. K. Rama Varma Raja, Seth I. Gutman, James G. Yoe, Larry M. McMillin, and Jiang Zhao

quality assurance criteria and corresponding threshold values may be found in Susskind et al. (2003 , 2006 . b. GPS IPW sensing The use of surface-based GPS receivers to measure IPW accurately is well established ( Bevis et al. 1992 ; Rocken et al. 1995 ; Duan et al. 1996 ; Wolfe and Gutman 2000 ; Feng et al. 2001 ). As described by Gutman et al. (2003) , the current implementation of ground-based GPS meteorology (GPS-Met) at the NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) involves the

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Biyan Chen, Zhizhao Liu, Wai-Kin Wong, and Wang-Chun Woo

into air during the process of condensation (vapor to liquid water) and deposition (vapor to ice), is an important source of atmospheric energy transportation and serves as the fuel for storms ( Ahrens and Samson 2011 ). Thus, water vapor distribution plays a crucial role in the evolution of atmospheric storms and the vertical stability of the atmosphere ( Bevis et al. 1992 ; Troller 2004 ; Ahrens and Samson 2011 ). Although all the intricacies that cause a precipitation event are not fully

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Petar Bukovčić, Alexander V. Ryzhkov, and Jacob T. Carlin

1. Introduction Visibility is a measure of atmospheric opacity. It has an enormous impact on transportation safety in airborne and ground-based traffic, especially in winter weather conditions. Reduced visibility in winter precipitation is one of the major contributing factors in motor vehicle collisions and aircraft crashes. Black and Mote (2015) reported that ~59% of all weather-related fatalities per year (during the 1996–2011 period) were attributed to winter precipitation-related motor

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Valery M. Melnikov and Richard J. Doviak

than 6 and even 10 m s −1 ) are found; these are larger than those median values found in squall lines ( Fang et al. 2004 ). In aviation meteorology, σ̂ v data ≥ 4 m s −1 are used to indicate the potential for turbulence considered a hazard to aircraft and/or its crew and passengers ( Lee 1977 ). A threshold of 4 m s −1 is used because it is accepted as an indicator of turbulence possibly hazardous to aircraft and/or its crew ( Lee 1977 ; Evans 1985 ). Because σ̂ v is a function of range and

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William B. Willis, William E. Eichinger, John H. Prueger, Cathleen J. Hapeman, Hong Li, Michael D. Buser, Jerry L. Hatfield, John D. Wanjura, Gregory A. Holt, Alba Torrents, Sean J. Plenner, Warren Clarida, Stephen D. Browne, Peter M. Downey, and Qi Yao

ranging 3–6 h in length, and each release was conducted at different distances in front of the VEB ( Table 1 ). The lidar was positioned 410 m northwest of the edge of the 9-m-tall VEB. Meteorological instruments and particulate size counters were arranged downwind of the VEB, where the lidar also scanned vertical slices in the atmosphere. A plan view of the study site ( Fig. 1 ) shows slices and the locations of the instruments deployed during this study. Fig . 1. Aerial view of the study site

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Wolfgang Junkermann

regarding radiation transfer or air quality–related investigations. The low requirements for take-off and landing space offer unique flexibility, and close-to-ground operations can be conducted as well. The aircraft is stored in a trailer for transportation, and the whole aircraft system can be set up and flown within approximately 60 min. Hence, measurements can be performed on short notice according to the meteorological conditions. For winter operations, snowboards are available and the use of floats

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Xiaolong Zong, Haidong Pan, Yongzhi Liu, and Xianqing Lv

impact of error and number of observations on inversion results. Finally, conclusions are presented in section 5 . 2. Methodology a. The ocean pollutant diffusion model Advection and diffusion are major physical mechanisms for the transportation process of conservative ocean pollutants. As a result, the basic advection and diffusion equation is selected as a model equation, and an item that depicts the emission rate of the pollutant is added as a modification, which is written as follows based on a

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R. Harikumar, N. K. Hithin, T. M. Balakrishnan Nair, P. Sirisha, B. Krishna Prasad, C. Jeyakumar, Shailesh Nayak, and S. S. C. Shenoi

1. Introduction Safe marine navigation depends crucially on the forecast of ocean state, especially along the ship route. Prior information of the ocean state would highly benefit mariners to ensure the maximum safety and crew comfort, minimum fuel consumption, minimum time underway, or any desired combination of these factors. In recent times, like all other oceans, the Indian Ocean (IO) also experienced an increase in maritime activities, such as transportation, fishing, and sailing, which in

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D. M. Mach

components due to instrument charging or other sources. As long as there are enough independent measurements to plot self-charging effects against the measured electric field, the method will work. Acknowledgments The author gratefully acknowledges the support received from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Transportation Mission Directorate, the sponsor of one of the airborne field measurement campaigns. In addition, the author would like to thank the individuals from the collaborating

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Michael L. Van Woert, Cheng-Zhi Zou, Walter N. Meier, Philip D. Hovey, Ruth H. Preller, and Pamela G. Posey

1. Introduction The meteorological community has a long-standing history of environmental forecasting. In concert with developing new forecast systems, that community has put considerable energy into developing methods for assessing changes in forecast skill. Operational ocean forecasting systems are in their infancy, but there is considerable interest in developing robust, skillful forecast systems for that environment (e.g., Koblinsky and Smith 2001 ; Pinardi and Woods 2002 ). Sea ice

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