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Dejun Dai, Fangli Qiao, Wojciech Sulisz, Lei Han, and Alexander Babanin

1. Introduction Energy input from wind to the surface waves, integrated over the World Ocean, is about 60 TW ( Wang and Huang 2004 ). Such a large amount of energy will dissipate and cause mixing in the ocean mixed layer. Qiao et al. (2004) proposed a parameterization scheme for the nonbreaking surface-wave-induced vertical mixing (NBWAIM), and numerical experiments show that this parameterization can significantly improve the performance of the ocean circulation models ( Qiao et al. 2004

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Nirnimesh Kumar, Douglas L. Cahl, Sean C. Crosby, and George Voulgaris

1. Introduction Surface gravity waves are important drivers for coastal circulation and upper open-ocean mixing. Wave-induced mass flux (i.e., Stokes drift u St ; Stokes 1847 ) affects multiple processes in the marine environment. In an alongshore uniform bathymetry, Stokes drift–induced mass flux leads to offshore-directed undertow in the surfzone and the inner shelf (e.g., Lentz et al. 2008 ). Stokes drift and mean velocity shear interaction (i.e., vortex force; Craik and Leibovich 1976

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Matthew H. Alford

1. Introduction Near-inertial internal waves (NIW) are known to dominate internal wave kinetic energy and shear spectra at all depths in the ocean ( Alford and Whitmont 2007 ; Silverthorne and Toole 2009 ). Because NIW energy ( Alford and Whitmont 2007 ) and parameterized mixing ( Whalen et al. 2018 ) both show strong seasonal cycles, a reasonable hypothesis is that wind-generated near-inertial waves contribute significantly to ocean mixing. In attempts to quantify the energy input of NIW, a

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Carl Wunsch

motions. A significant fraction of the energy exists, however, at large distances from this line, including that of eastward-going motions (20% of the total is eastward, 70% is westward, and 9% is indistinguishable from standing wave energy). The nondispersive line is nearly tangent to the first baroclinic mode dispersion curve (shown in the figure) near zero ( k , s ) and intersects the barotropic dispersion curve at large ( k , s ). This behavior appears to be typical of much of the ocean, but

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Francesco Fedele and Felice Arena

1. Introduction Stochastic modeling of time series of the significant wave height H s recorded at a given ocean site is the principal focus of statistical methods employed in the long-term prediction of extreme wave events during sea storms ( Krogstad 1985 ; Prevosto et al. 2000 ; Boccotti 2000 ). The reviews of several methods used for this can be found in the work of Isaacson and Mackenzie (1981) , Guedes Soares (1989) , and Goda (1999) . In these methods, the effects of the sea state

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Johanna H. Rosman and Gregory P. Gerbi

2001 ; Feddersen et al. 2007 ) by considering a more realistic turbulence spectrum that includes a rolloff at energy-containing scales. The general frozen turbulence approach is used to transform model turbulence κ spectra to ω spectra observed at a point when the turbulence is advected by waves and current. We systematically vary the current, wave properties, and turbulence properties across a wide parameter space that spans conditions in the coastal ocean, extending the work of Gerbi et al

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Qingyang Song and Hidenori Aiki

–like climate mode in the Benguela upwelling region ( Illig and Bachèlery 2019 ; Richter et al. 2010 ). Hence, in recent years, increasing concerns are raised in the tropical Atlantic, on the energy transfer of those intraseasonal waves. The intraseasonal variability of currents, sea levels, and SSTs in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean is excited by either wind forcing ( Athie and Marin 2008 ; Polo et al. 2008 ) or instability of zonal currents and SST fronts ( Yu et al. 1995 ; Grodsky et al. 2005 ). At

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Ziming Ke and Alexander E. Yankovsky

1. Introduction A full set of barotropic long waves trapped in the coastal ocean over a variable topography includes a zero (fundamental) mode that exists at both subinertial and superinertial frequencies and propagates with the coast on its right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere (hereinafter, we refer to this direction as downstream) (e.g., Huthnance 1975 ). This zero mode resembles a Kelvin wave at lower, near- or subinertial frequencies and an edge wave (Stokes mode) at high

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Lee-Lueng Fu

; Saraceno et al. 2004 ). In the center of the basin there is an intense anticyclonic gyre of barotropic circulation transporting water at a rate of 140 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) around the Zapiola Rise, a sediment ridge at the ocean’s bottom ( Saunders and King 1995 ; de Miranda et al. 1999 ). Superimposed on the gyre are rapidly rotating barotropic waves around the Zapiola Rise with a period close to 25 days ( Fu et al. 2001 ). These dynamical processes of wide-ranging spatial and temporal scales

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Björn Carlsson, Yiannis Papadimitrakis, and Anna Rutgersson

1. Introduction The ocean–atmosphere momentum exchange is important for many atmospheric and oceanic processes. In wave and ocean modeling, as well as in atmospheric modeling, it is essential to model this exchange correctly. The momentum flux or the wind stress, τ , is governed by the roughness of the sea surface, which is usually described by the roughness length z 0 . Over land z 0 is determined by the form and height of more or less solid roughness elements. On the contrary, the sea

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