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Xuejian Cao, Youcun Qi, and Guangheng Ni

selected as a typical urban catchment to conduct related research work many times ( Cao et al. 2020a ; Lyu et al. 2018 ). The routed flow is then distributed uniformly over the downstream grid. Given the effect of backwater and turbulence in the sewer network, the one-dimensional dynamic wave approach is selected to compute the sewer flow to obtain a better simulation ( Rossman and Huber 2017 ). 3. Numerical simulation scheme and evaluation method To understand the impacts of BIRR on the hydrologic

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Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

also shown in Figs. 10c and 10d . As suggested by RH , both the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea were important sources of moisture that were necessary for the MCSs propagating along the Tibetan Plateau. Additionally, Medina et al. (2010) showed that surface fluxes of sensible heat can increase buoyancy and previous precipitation features can contribute to moisture fluxes from the Arabian Sea. Thus, in addition to the oceanic moisture sources, local moisture sources and surface fluxes likely

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Chuanhao Wu, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Yi-Ying Chen, Bill X. Hu, and Guoru Huang

frequency and severity of climate extremes such as flood, drought, and heat waves, all of which are closely tied to large economic losses and casualties ( Wang et al. 2017 ). Among climate hazards, drought leads to major agricultural, economic, and environmental damages with significant global economic losses per year ( Wilhite 2000 ). It is therefore important to investigate how the drought risks may change if global warming can be controlled to within 1.5° and 2°C, and whether significant differences

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Viviana Maggioni, Humberto J. Vergara, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Dimitrios Stampoulis

Model (SAC-SMA; Burnash et al. 1973 ) for runoff generation and a kinematic wave model for flow routing. For the latter, a rating curve method is available ( Koren et al. 2004 ), which was selected for this study. SAC-SMA has 17 conceptual parameters while the routing model consists of 2 parameters. Initial spatially distributed estimates for 11 of the SAC-SMA parameters were available from the work of Koren et al. (2000) . The remaining 6 parameters were implemented as lumped values established

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Nina Raoult, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Pascal Maugis

compared to hours to days), the residence times of soil moisture are also important for the prediction of heat waves ( Lorenz et al. 2010 ), droughts ( Nicholson 2000 ), floods ( Bonan and Stillwell-Soller 1998 ), crop yield ( de Wit and Van Diepen 2008 ), or wildfires ( Krueger et al. 2015 ). However, modeling soil moisture dynamics is complex since it exhibits large sensitivities to meteorological forcing data and land surface model parameterizations. Fortunately, there are now a large variety of

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Jun Li, Zhaoli Wang, Xushu Wu, Chong-Yu Xu, Shenglian Guo, and Xiaohong Chen

calibration metrics for “high-flow” estimation using hydrologic models . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 23 , 2601 – 2614 , . 10.5194/hess-23-2601-2019 Mo , K. C. , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2015 : Heat wave flash droughts in decline . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 2823 – 2829 , . 10.1002/2015GL064018 Mo , K. C. , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2016 : Precipitation deficit flash droughts over the United States . J

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

Plains (33°–50°N, 108°–85°W) during 2012. Values have a 10-day running mean applied. In summary, the timing of the impacts of the ocean basins on U.S. temperature anomalies is similar in the two years. We have already seen ( Fig. 7 ) that the cold season response to SST is linked to large-scale changes in the stationary waves, with the response to the Pacific associated with a PNA-like response and the response to the Atlantic resembling a NAO-like structure. During the summer the warming and drying

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Vincent Häfliger, Eric Martin, Aaron Boone, Florence Habets, Cédric H. David, Pierre-A. Garambois, Hélène Roux, Sophie Ricci, Lucie Berthon, Anthony Thévenin, and Sylvain Biancamaria

1. Introduction Remote sensing from spaceborne platforms is increasingly used for the monitoring of components of the hydrological cycle, including river discharge ( Santos da Silva et al. 2010 ). The surface soil moisture can be observed by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites ( Pierdicca et al. 2013 ; Kerr et al. 2010 ; Flores et al. 2012 ). The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

or southern Plains inducing increases in positive precipitation and soil moisture. Fig . 12. As in Fig. 11 , but for three drought terminations in (top) JFM 1990, (middle) OND 2000, and (bottom) JAS 2006. Figure 13 then shows the larger-scale atmosphere–ocean context of the 6 DO&T events. While we previously noted that the onsets occurred when the tropical Pacific was cool, only in OND 2010 were the SST anomalies strong and indicating a La Niña event. The wave train has some similarity, but

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Jason P. Giovannettone and Ana P. Barros

.g., from satellites such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, and others] that make it possible to monitor precipitation processes in regions of complex terrain, such as the Western Cordillera of North America, where ground-based data are scarce because of the remoteness and limited access to these locations. Although the measurement and retrieval uncertainty of

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