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Y. Peings, H. Douville, J. Colin, D. Saint Martin, and Gudrun Magnusdottir

(1999) first identified a statistically significant correlation between the fall Siberian snow extent derived from satellite data and the first mode of atmospheric variability of the NH atmosphere in winter, that is, the Arctic Oscillation (AO), also referred to as the northern annular mode (NAM) (e.g., Barnston and Livezey 1987 ; Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Kushner 2010 ). Several observational studies followed, focusing on the correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (e

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Yueqing Li and Song Yang

-scale atmospheric and oceanic processes. For example, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) influences not only the climate over the north polar region and the North Atlantic but also the Siberian high (SH) and EAWM ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Wu and Wang 2002 ). Li (1989) showed that weak (strong) EAWM usually occurs following the mature phase of El Niño (La Niña). Anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation usually exists over the Philippine Sea during El Niño (La Niña) winters ( Wang et al. 2000 ), and thus

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Shih-Yu Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, Robert R. Gillies, and Changrae Cho

disturbances) through Nepal. Pronounced interannual variability of winter storm occurrences is correlated with the polar/Eurasia teleconnection pattern ( Lang and Barros 2004 ; Li et al. 2008 ), which links other larger-scale natural climate variabilities, such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), to the winter climate of Nepal. In western Nepal, winter monthly precipitation amounts are on the order of 50 mm or less. The region is particularly reliant on this

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Bo Christiansen

1. Introduction The atmospheric low-frequency variability is dominated by a relatively few large-scale modes. In the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, the most prominent include the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), while the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dominates in the tropics. Although the variability of these modes is basically generated internally in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system the modes may also respond to external forcings. Volcanic

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Jan-Erik Tesdal, Ryan P. Abernathey, Joaquim I. Goes, Arnold L. Gordon, and Thomas W. N. Haine

might be linked to wind stress curl and climate indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Freshwater sources affecting salinity that were not explicitly considered in this study include those from the outflow from the Arctic Ocean, river discharge, and glacier melt from Greenland. Recent studies suggest that changes in freshwater outflow from the Arctic through the Fram and Davis Straits are not statistically significant ( Haine et al. 2015 ). 2. Methods

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K. M. de Beurs and G. M. Henebry

the increase in surface winter temperature in Europe and Asia (north of 40°N) ( Hurrell 1996 ; Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Thompson et al. 2000 ; Hurrell et al. 2003 ). A mode of climate variability with extensive effects in the Northern Hemisphere, is the northern annular mode (NAM) ( Thompson and Wallace 2001 ), which also goes by the name of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Hurrell 1995 ) or the Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ). Thompson and Wallace (2001

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Nan Zhao, Sujie Liang, and Yihui Ding

1. Introduction The Arctic Oscillation (AO) (see Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ; Wallace 2000 ), also known as the Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM), is usually regarded as a result of wave–mean flow interaction ( Limpasuvan and Hartmann 1999 , 2000 ; DeWeaver and Nigam 2000 ; Eichelberger and Holton 2002 ; Lorenz and Hartmann 2003 ; Vallis et al. 2004 ; Riviere and Orlanski 2007 ; Benedict et al. 2004 ; Franzke et al. 2004 ; Feldstein 2003 ; Feldstein and Franzke 2006

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Renguang Wu and Shangfeng Chen

. Studies indicated that SAT variations over Eurasia are impacted by several atmospheric circulation patterns, including the Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Scandinavian pattern ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Gong et al. 2001 ; Barnston and Livezey 1987 ; Zveryaev and Gulev 2009 ; Cheung et al. 2012 ; Chen et al. 2018a , 2019a ; Chen and Song 2019 ). During the positive (negative) phase of the NAO/AO, most parts of mid- to high-latitude Eurasia are dominated by

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Changhyun Yoo, Sukyoung Lee, and Steven B. Feldstein

winter that there is an increase in warm advection that takes place over West Antarctica via poleward-propagating Rossby wave trains that are responding to an increased sea surface temperature over the central tropical Pacific Ocean. Yoo et al. (2011 , hereafter YFL ) further investigated this relationship between tropical convection and Arctic SAT amplification, with their focus being on the interdecadal trend in the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ). They

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Nan Zhao, Sujie Liang, and Yihui Ding

1. Introduction Our previous studies ( Zhao and Takahashi 2006 ; Zhao et al. 2010 , 2012 ) on the origin of the Arctic Oscillation or Northern Hemisphere annular mode (hereafter AO/NAM) ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 , 2000 ) found that the three-dimensional spatial structure of the AO/NAM stems mainly from the linear normal modes of extratropical large-scale dynamics, although the temporal variability of this pattern may well be related to the nonlinear nature of the extratropical wave

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