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Judah L. Cohen, David A. Salstein, and Richard D. Rosen

differences in the strength and location of winds in the lower levels of the mean Hadley cell, despite both reanalyses’ use of wind information there from satellites and other systems besides radiosondes. Nevertheless, Mo and Higgins (1996) conclude that the NCEP–NCAR moisture-flux products are “able to depict interannual variability related to the ENSO cycle quite well.” Waliser et al. (1999) investigated the signals associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the NCEP–NCAR estimates

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Yaping Zhou, Di Wu, William K.-M. Lau, and Wei-Kuo Tao

(RDAS) that assimilates precipitation along with other variables. 3. Results a. Meteorological conditions in the springs of 2010 and 2011 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main driver of interannual variability of precipitation in the United States ( Horel and Wallace 1981 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1986 ; Barnston et al. 1999 ; Ting and Wang 1997 ) modulated by decadal-scale variability from other climate modes such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation

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Scott Steinschneider and Upmanu Lall

). During positive (negative) PNA episodes, meridional (zonal) flow promotes (impedes) the southerly movement of dry, cold Arctic air into the central-eastern United States, preventing (enhancing) the intrusion of moist, tropical air from the IAS that can produce precipitation over the region ( Leathers et al. 1991 ; Ge et al. 2009 ). Effects associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) appear to be secondary ( Coleman and Rogers 2003 , 2007 ) and a

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Yang Lang, Aizhong Ye, Wei Gong, Chiyuan Miao, Zhenhua Di, Jing Xu, Yu Liu, Lifeng Luo, and Qingyun Duan

China. The predictability of EAWM shows large differences between the southern portion and the northern portion of East Asia ( Jiang et al. 2013b ). The southern EAWM component, whose variability is mainly affected by ENSO, exhibits larger predictability. However, smaller predictability is found for the northern EAWM component, which is mostly governed by the extratropical atmospheric circulation such as the Arctic Oscillation, which has been poorly predicted by CFSv2. Moreover, the prediction of

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Kazuyuki Saito, Tetsuzo Yasunari, and Kumiko Takata

Tropics to arid arctic areas and from coastal regions to the continental interior. a. Near-surface air temperature Figure 5 shows latitude–time sections of near-surface air temperature ( T s ) averaged over the strip defined above. The area between the two horizontal solid black lines denotes the latitude band of high orography that includes the Tibetan Plateau. Mean altitude in this region exceeds 2000 m. For all the seasons, local surface air temperature decreases following the atmospheric lapse

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Alan K. Betts, John H. Ball, and Pedro Viterbo

Arctic precipitation and evaporation with 24 climate model simulations, and found that these climate models overestimated high-latitude precipitation. MAGS has yielded several important observational studies. Stewart et al. (2000) , Rouse (2000a) , and Rouse et al. (2003) discuss the broad seasonal and regional character of the energy and water budgets of the Mackenzie, observational studies of the snow and lake hydrology, and developments in modeling. More detailed analyses of shallow lakes and

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Ian D. Phillips and Glenn R. McGregor

and Moore (1999) used a climatic change perspective to justify their study of atmospheric water vapor over the Mackenzie River basin in the Canadian Arctic. Tropical vapor flux studies also have an important role to play in the ongoing research on global climate change, especially in the light of concerns over large-scale deforestation. Curtis and Hastenrath (1999) also analyzed the long-term evolution of water vapor transport over equatorial South America and the adjacent oceans from 1958 to

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M. Ionita, M. Dima, G. Lohmann, P. Scholz, and N. Rimbu

–616 , doi: 10.1038/ngeo944 . Liu, L. , Zhang R. , and Zuo Z. , 2014 : Intercomparison of spring soil moisture among multiple reanalysis data sets over eastern China . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 119 , 54 – 64 , doi: 10.1002/2013JD020940 . Lohmann, G. , Rimbu N. , and Dima M. , 2005 : Where can the Arctic Oscillation be reconstructed? Towards a reconstruction of climate modes based on stable teleconnections . Climate Past Discuss. , 1 , 17 – 56 , doi: 10.5194/cpd-1-17-2005 . Mahanama

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

and anomalous WP is complex, especially in the East Asia, because climate is intricately affected by global-scale climate modes such as the Asian monsoon, ENSO, and Arctic Oscillation. The climate variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean strongly affects the East Asian summer climate such as precipitation (e.g., Ohba and Ueda 2006 ; Xie et al. 2009 ; Kosaka et al. 2013 ) and the routes and genesis of typhoons (e.g., Du et al. 2011 ; Yonekura and Hall 2014 ). In this framework

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A. Laraque, J. Ronchail, G. Cochonneau, R. Pombosa, and J. L. Guyot

observed in the Andes in Venezuela and Colombia ( Pulwarty et al. 1992 ; Poveda 2004 ). The semiannual cycle of rainfall in the Andes results from the latitudinal oscillation of convection maximum that depends on the annual cycle of temperature and insolation ( Kousky et al. 1988 ; Horel et al. 1989 ; Figueroa and Nobre 1990 ). The semiannual cycle is also determined by vapor transport from the Atlantic, by surface easterlies and medium- and upper-level circulation ( Cuartas and Poveda 2002

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