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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

precipitation extremes in urban environments ( Han et al. 2014 ). There is an ongoing debate on the impact of urban environment on precipitation variations at a local scale. Most observational and modeling research showed that urban environments play a positive role in affecting precipitation variety by enhancing moisture convergence, destabilizing the planetary boundary layer, and favoring vertical updrafts ( Huff and Changnon 1973 ; Mote et al. 2007 ; Shepherd et al. 2010 ; Wang et al. 2015 ). Warmer

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Ji-Qin Zhong, Bing Lu, Wei Wang, Cheng-Cheng Huang, and Yang Yang

forecasts are important for economic development and people’s daily life, so to find out the causes of such forecasting bias is of great urgency. A number of studies have investigated the reasons for the poor performance of near-surface temperature and humidity forecasts in NWP. Numerous hypotheses concerning the sources of these near-surface temperature forecast biases have been proposed, including inadequate horizontal or vertical resolution, inaccurate initialization and parameterization of boundary

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Mengye Chen, Zhi Li, Shang Gao, Xiangyu Luo, Oliver E. J. Wing, Xinyi Shen, Jonathan J. Gourley, Randall L. Kolar, and Yang Hong

increase ( van Oldenborgh et al. 2018 ) and the propagation of the cyclones will likely decrease due to the possible impact from climate change ( Kossin 2018 ). It is thus likely that the future flood risk and its consequential socioeconomic damage will escalate. On top of the changes in the tropical cyclone characteristics, rising sea level in a warming climate can intensify coastal flooding ( Wing et al. 2019 ). There is a clear need for tools that can facilitate the current and future flood risk

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Xuejian Cao, Youcun Qi, and Guangheng Ni

). Currently, enormous studies focus on the blockage effects of buildings, where the existence of buildings alters the initial overland flow paths determined by gravity’s direction. To estimate the blockage effects of buildings, various methods in the past are adopted, such as increasing the roughness in localized areas to represent buildings ( Connell et al. 2001 ; Vojinovic et al. 2011 ), blocking 2D elements or removing them from the simulation grid ( Chen et al. 2008 ; Russo et al. 2012 ; Zoran 2009

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Prabhakar Shrestha

temperatures and increased humidity levels in the atmospheric boundary layer ( Leung et al. 2011 ; Shrestha et al. 2014 ; Keune et al. 2016 ; Sulis et al. 2018 ). A recent global modeling study by Wang et al. (2018) showed that prescribed constant shallow water table depth increases ET over water-limited regimes, but decreases ET over energy-limited regimes due to the corresponding increase in cloud cover, which reduces downwelling radiation. In fact, clouds generally modulate the amount of solar

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Xuejin Wang, Baoqing Zhang, Feng Li, Xiang Li, Xuliang Li, Yibo Wang, Rui Shao, Jie Tian, and Chansheng He

). In addition, moisture recycling estimates can be used reliably to indicate the sensitivity of climate to land use change and land–atmosphere feedback. The recycling strength has been considered as an indicator which controls soil moisture and local ET dynamics on regional climate ( Eltahir and Bras 1994 ; Burde and Zangvil 2001 ). The boundary layer and mesoscale circulation perturbation caused by LUCC may lead to a change in surface ET and can increase or decrease P locally ( Seneviratne et

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Yixin Wen, Qing Cao, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Jian Zhang, Guifu Zhang, and Bin Yong

current Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Based on data measured by the NEXRAD network, the National Mosaic and the next-generation quantitative precipitation estimation system (NMQ/Q2) ( Vasiloff et al. 2007 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ) is a real-time test bed comprising high-resolution (1 km, 5 min) multisensor precipitation products. A web-based display and a rain gauge–based validation system have been built for the datasets and are freely

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Irena Ott, Doris Duethmann, Joachim Liebert, Peter Berg, Hendrik Feldmann, Juergen Ihringer, Harald Kunstmann, Bruno Merz, Gerd Schaedler, and Sven Wagner

gained from this small but systematic ensemble. Our high-resolution RCM ensemble is currently unique for Germany and presents a concerted modeling effort both for RCM simulations and hydrological modeling, resulting in a consistent model chain for the hydrological impact analysis of climate change in Germany. The model chain was implemented for the Ammer, Mulde, and Ruhr catchments—chosen to represent different flood regimes in Germany ( Beurton and Thieken 2009 ). The three study areas are described

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Stephen B. Cocks, Andrew P. Osborne, Micheal J. Simpson, Lin Tang, Jian Zhang, and Kenneth W. Howard

), and an advanced quality control (QC) of automated hourly gauge observations ( Qi et al. 2016 ) for local gauge correction of radar-derived QPE ( Zhang et al. 2016 ). Research studies and precipitation estimation intercomparisons have demonstrated the effectiveness of the aforementioned algorithms on the performance of MRMS QPEs (e.g., Cocks et al. 2016 , 2017 ). It is important to understand the current skill and challenges of generating accurate rainfall accumulations during landfalling

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

decision-making. For example, rain-on-snow events with a higher transition elevation and antecedent ground snowpack could enhance flood risk since the snowmelt contributes additional runoff to rainfall totals ( Musselman et al. 2018 ; White et al. 2019 ). The rain–snow-transition zone is the elevation range where cold-season precipitation is a mix of rain and snow, with its upper boundary being all snow, and the lower boundary being all rain. The rain–snow-transition elevation is approximately the

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