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Steven M. Martinaitis, Stephen B. Cocks, Andrew P. Osborne, Micheal J. Simpson, Lin Tang, Jian Zhang, and Kenneth W. Howard

), and an advanced quality control (QC) of automated hourly gauge observations ( Qi et al. 2016 ) for local gauge correction of radar-derived QPE ( Zhang et al. 2016 ). Research studies and precipitation estimation intercomparisons have demonstrated the effectiveness of the aforementioned algorithms on the performance of MRMS QPEs (e.g., Cocks et al. 2016 , 2017 ). It is important to understand the current skill and challenges of generating accurate rainfall accumulations during landfalling

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Yixin Wen, Qing Cao, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Jian Zhang, Guifu Zhang, and Bin Yong

current Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) network. Based on data measured by the NEXRAD network, the National Mosaic and the next-generation quantitative precipitation estimation system (NMQ/Q2) ( Vasiloff et al. 2007 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ) is a real-time test bed comprising high-resolution (1 km, 5 min) multisensor precipitation products. A web-based display and a rain gauge–based validation system have been built for the datasets and are freely

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Irena Ott, Doris Duethmann, Joachim Liebert, Peter Berg, Hendrik Feldmann, Juergen Ihringer, Harald Kunstmann, Bruno Merz, Gerd Schaedler, and Sven Wagner

gained from this small but systematic ensemble. Our high-resolution RCM ensemble is currently unique for Germany and presents a concerted modeling effort both for RCM simulations and hydrological modeling, resulting in a consistent model chain for the hydrological impact analysis of climate change in Germany. The model chain was implemented for the Ammer, Mulde, and Ruhr catchments—chosen to represent different flood regimes in Germany ( Beurton and Thieken 2009 ). The three study areas are described

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

decision-making. For example, rain-on-snow events with a higher transition elevation and antecedent ground snowpack could enhance flood risk since the snowmelt contributes additional runoff to rainfall totals ( Musselman et al. 2018 ; White et al. 2019 ). The rain–snow-transition zone is the elevation range where cold-season precipitation is a mix of rain and snow, with its upper boundary being all snow, and the lower boundary being all rain. The rain–snow-transition elevation is approximately the

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M. Breil and G. Schädler

1. Introduction The turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere are a central component of Earth’s climate system. At the land surface, solar radiation is absorbed, transformed, stored, and released again into the atmosphere as sensible and latent heat. In this way, sensible and latent heat fluxes control the climate conditions within the boundary layer and constitute the lower boundary condition for all atmospheric circulations on Earth. The partitioning of the turbulent

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Bailing Li, Matthew Rodell, Christa Peters-Lidard, Jessica Erlingis, Sujay Kumar, and David Mocko

sustainable groundwater development, defined as current and future groundwater use that will not cause undesirable environmental consequences ( Alley et al. 1999 ). Over the past several decades, overexploitation of groundwater resources has led to depleted aquifers, land subsidence, groundwater contamination, decreased low flow, and seawater intrusion in many regions across the world ( Robins 1998 ; Konikow and Kendy 2005 ; Kuhn et al. 2007 ; Rodell et al. 2009 ; Wada et al. 2010 ; Famiglietti et al

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Abedeh Abdolghafoorian and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction The interactions between land and atmosphere play a significant role in the climate and weather system. Variations in land states affect the atmosphere through their effects on surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and the subsequent impact of those fluxes on the atmosphere vertical structures and mixing processes. Land surface controls on atmospheric boundary layer properties have been well demonstrated (e.g., Ek and Holtslag 2004 ; Gentine et al. 2013 ). Recognizing

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Emily A. Slinskey, Paul C. Loikith, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, and Andrew Martin

monsoon). This method defines ARs on the basis of moisture transport and connected object characteristics only. Therefore, it does not consider spatiotemporally related phenomena (e.g., fronts and extratropical cyclones) that are part of the phenomenological understanding of ARs in the global climate. Defining ARs in this way is consistent with current literature ( Shields et al. 2018 ), and it is beyond the scope of this study to attempt to link AR objects with any phenomena besides extreme

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Klaus Vormoor and Thomas Skaugen

estimates agree best during summer, when a considerable mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer is present. Precipitation estimates agree best during winter, when large-scale precipitation patterns dominate over convective precipitation. b. High-resolution hindcast series Gridded temperature and precipitation hindcasts with hourly temporal resolution and 0.1° grid spacing are available for the time period between September 1957 and December 2010. These hindcast series have been generated by the

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Xuejian Cao, Guangheng Ni, Youcun Qi, and Bo Liu

al. 2008 ). The SRI can be determined by field survey or derived from observed rainfall–runoff data of each subcatchment ( Ebrahimian et al. 2016 ), due to the explicitly physical meaning of the unit boundary and the relatively small amount of calculation units. However, to better characterize the high spatial variability, fully distributed models always present more competency ( Chao et al. 2019 ), especially in the application to the urban area with extremely complicated surface conditions

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